The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Bruce, J.R., Colman, J.S. & Jones, N.S., (1963). Marine fauna of the Isle of Man. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press. External link.
  • Fish, J.D. & Fish, S., (1996). A student's guide to the seashore. Second edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. External link.
  • Foster-Smith, J. (ed.), (2000). The marine fauna and flora of the Cullercoats District. Marine species records for the North East Coast of England. Sunderland: Penshaw Press, for the Dove Marine Laboratory, University of Newcastle upon Tyne. External link.
  • Goldstein, L., 1953. A study of the mechanism of activation and nuclear breakdown in the Chaetopterus egg. Biol. Bull., 105: 87-102.
  • Hauton, C., Hall-Spencer, J.M. & Moore, P.G., (2003). An experimental study of the ecological impacts of hydraulic bivalve dredging on maerl. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 60, 381-392. External link.
  • Hayward, P., Nelson-Smith, T. & Shields, C., (1996). Collins pocket guide. Sea shore of Britain and northern Europe. London: HarperCollins. External link.
  • Hayward, P.J. & Ryland, J.S. (ed.), (1995b). Handbook of the marine fauna of North-West Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press. External link.
  • Henley, C., And D. P. Costell, 1957. The effects of x-irradiation on the fertilized eggs of the annelid, Chaetopterus. Biol. Bull., 112: 184-195.
  • Howson, C.M. & Picton, B.E. (ed.), (1997). The species directory of the marine fauna and flora of the British Isles and surrounding seas. Belfast: Ulster Museum. [Ulster Museum publication, no. 276.] External link.
  • JNCC (Joint Nature Conservation Committee), (1999). Marine Environment Resource Mapping And Information Database (MERMAID): Marine Nature Conservation Review Survey Database. [on-line], External link.
  • Just, E. E., 1939. Basic Methods for Experiments on Eggs of Marine Animals. P. Blakiston's Son & Co., Inc., Philadelphia.
  • Lillie, F. R., 1902. Differentiation without cleavage in the egg of the annelid Chaetopterus pergamentaceus. Arch. f. Entw., 14: 477-499.
  • Lillie, F. R., 1906. Observations and experiments concerning the elementary phenomena of embryonic development in Chaetopterus. J. Exp. Zool., 3: 153-268.
  • Mead, A. D., 1897. The early development of marine annelids. J. Morph., 13: 227-326.
  • Pasteels, J., 1935. Recherches sur le determinisme de ['entree en maturation de l'oeuf chez divers Invertebres marine. Arch. Biol., 46: 229-262.
  • Pasteels, J., 1950. Mouvements localises et rythmiques de la membrane de fécondation chez des oeufs fécondés ou activés (Chaetopterus, Mactra, Nereis). Arch. Biol., 61: 197-220.
  • Picton, B.E. & Costello, M.J., (1998). BioMar biotope viewer: a guide to marine habitats, fauna and flora of Britain and Ireland. [CD-ROM] Environmental Sciences Unit, Trinity College, Dublin., External link.
  • Titlebaum, A., 1928. Artificial production of Janus embryos of Chaetopterus. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 14: 245-247.
  • Tyler, A., 1930. Experimental production of double embryos in annelids and mollusks. J. Exp. Zool., 57: 347-407.
  • Whitaker D. M., 1933. On the rate of oxygen consumption by fertilized and unfertilized eggs. Iv. Chaetopterus and Arbacia punctulata. J. Gen. Physiol., 16: 4/5-495.
  • Wilson, E. B., 1882. Observations on the early developmental stages of some polychaetous Annelides. Stud. Biol. Lab., Johns Hopkins Univ., 2: 271-299.
  • Wilson, E. B., 1929. The development of egg-fragments in annelids. Arch. f. Entw., 117: 179-210.


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