The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Abbott, R. Tucker. 1954. American Seashells. 541 pp. New York City, New York: D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc.
  • Baxter, R.E. 1971. Earthquake effects on clams of Prince William Sound. The Great Alaska Earthquake of 1964. Biology, pp.238–245. National Academy of Science Publication No. 1604. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.
  • Boening, Dean W. 1999. An Evaluation of Bivalves as Biomonitors of Heavy Metals Pollution in Marine Waters. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 55 (3): 459 - 470.
  • Bouchet P., Gofas S. & Rosenberg G. (2015). WoRMS Mollusca: World Marine Mollusca database (version Feb 2013). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Bourne, N. F. 1971. The Effects of Temperature, Salinity and Food on the Development of the Larvae of Butter Clams (Saxidomus giganteus, Deshayes) [abst.]. National Shellfisheries Association, Proceedings 61: 1.
  • Breese, W. P. and F. D. Phibbs. 1970. Some observations on the spawning and early development of the Butter Clam, Saxidomus giganteus (Deshayes). National Shellfisheries Association, Proceedings 60: 95 - 98.
  • Cannon, Aubrey & Burchell, Meghan. 2009. Clam growth-stage profiles as a measure of harvest intensity and resource management on the central coast of British Columbia. Journal of Archaeological Science 36 (4): 1050 - 1060.
  • Cheney, D.P. and Mumford, T.F. Jr. 1986: Shellfish and Seaweed Harvests of Puget Sound. 164 pp. Seattle, WA: Washington Sea Grant Program, University of Washington.
  • Coan, E. V.; Valentich-Scott, P. & Bernard, F. R. 2000. Bivalve Seashells of Western North America: Marine Bivalve Mollusks from Arctic Alaska to Baja California. Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History Monographs Number 2; Studies in Biodiversity Number 2, Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History.
  • Coan, Eugene V., Paul Valentich Scott, and Frank R. Bernard. 2000. Bivalve Seashells of Western North America: Marine Bivalve Mollusks from Arctic Alaska to Baja California. Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History Monographs, Number 2; Studies in Biodiversity, Number 2. viii + 764
  • Dethier, M. 2006. Native Shellfish in Nearshore Ecosystems of Puget Sound. Puget Sound Nearshore Partnership Report No. 2006-04. Published by Seattle District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Seattle, Washington.
  • Dudas, Sarah E., Dower, John. F. 2006. Reproductive ecology and dispersal potential of varnish clam Nuttallia obscurata, a recent invader in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. Marine Ecology Progress Series 320: 195 - 205.
  • Fraser, C., Smith, Gertrude M. 1928a. Notes on the ecology of the little neck clam, Paphia staminea Conrad. Proceedings and transactions of the royal society of Canada 22: 249 - 271.
  • Fraser, C., Smith, Gertrude M. 1928b. Notes on the ecology of the Butter Clam, Saxidomus giganteus Deshayes. Proceedings and Transactions of The Royal Society of Canada 22: 271 - 287.
  • Gillikin, David Paul, De Ridder, Fjo, Ulens, Hans, Elskens, Marc, Keppens, Eddy, Baeyens, Willy, Dehairs, Frank. 2005. Assessing the reproducibility and reliability of estuarine bivalve shells (Saxidomus giganteus) for sea surface temperature reconstruction: Implications for paleoclimate studies. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 228 (1-2): 70 - 85.
  • Goong, S.A. 1999: Growth and Age Determination of Butter Clams (Saxidomus giganteus Deshayes) on Selected Beaches in the State of Washington, with Comments on Recruitment. MA Thesis, University of Washington, Seattle, 1-70
  • Goong, Stuart & Chew, Kenneth. 2001. Growth of butter clams, Saxidomus giganteus Deshayes, on selected beaches in the state of Washington. Journal of Shellfish Research 20 (1): 143 - 147.
  • Hallman, Nadine, Burchell, Meghan, Schöne, Bernd R., Irvine, Gail V., Maxwell, David. 2009. High-resolution sclerochronological analysis of the bivalve mollusk Saxidomus gigantae from Alaska and British Columbia: techniques for revealing environmental archives and archaeological seasonality. Journal of Archaeological Science 36 (10): 2353 - 2364.
  • Huber M. 2010. Compendium of bivalves. A full-color guide to 3,300 of the world’s marine bivalves. A status on Bivalvia after 250 years of research. Hackenheim: ConchBooks. 901
  • Hurst, J.L. 2003. The Analysis of Shell Growth and Age at Harvest of the Butter Clam (Saxidomus giganteus Deshayes): An Insight to the Implementation of Management Practices at the Qwu?gwes Archaeological Site (45TN240) in Olympia, WA, USA. MA thesis, University of Exeter, England
  • Karr, J.R. 1981. Assessment of biotic integrity using fish communities. Fisheries 6(6): 21 - 27.
  • Keep, Josiah. 1911. West Coast Shells. 346 pp. San Francisco, California: The Whitaker and Ray-Wiggin Company.
  • Kim, Y.H., Ryu, D.K., Lee, D.W., Chang, D.S., Kim, J.B., Kim, S.T., Kwon, D.H. 2006. Morphological analysis among populations of purpulish washington clam, Saxidomus purpuratus in the Korean waters. Korean Journal of Malacology 22 (1): 23 - 26.
  • Kvenvolden, Keith A., Blunt, David J., Clifton, Edward H. 1979. Amino-acid racemization in Quaternary shell deposits at Willapa Bay, Washington. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 43: 1505 - 1520.
  • Kvenvolden, Keith A., Blunt, David J., McMenamin, Mark A. 1980. Geochemistry of amino acids in shells of the clam Saxidomus. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 12: 321 - 332.
  • Kvitek, R. G. & Beitler, M. K. 1991. Relative insensitivity of butter clam neurons to saxitoxin: a pre-adaptation for sequestering paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins as a chemical defense. Marine Ecology Progress Series 69, 47−54.
  • Kvitek, R.G. 1991. Paralytic shellfish toxins sequestered by bivalves as a defense against siphon-nipping fish. Marine Biology 111 (3): 369 -374.
  • Kvitek, R.G., Bowlby, C.E., Staedler, Michelle. 1993. Diet and foraging behavior of sea otters in southeast Alaska. Marine Mammal Science 9 (2): 168 - 181.
  • Lane, C.E. 1968. Toxins of marine origin. Annual Review of Pharmacology 8: 409 -426.
  • Morris, R.H., Abbott, D.P., Haderlie, E.C.. 1980. Intertidal invertebrates of California. 690pp. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.
  • Nickerson, R.B. 1977. A study of the littleneck clam Protothaca staminea (Conrad) and the butter clam Saxidomus giganteus (Deshayes) in a habitat permitting coexistence, Prince William Sound, Alaska. Proceedings of the Nat. Shellfisheries Association 67: 85 – 102.
  • Quayle, D.B. and Bourne, N. 1972. The Clam Fisheries of British Columbia. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Bulletin 179. 70 pp.
  • Reid, R.G.B. 1976. Gastric protein digestion in the carnivorous septibranch Cardiomya planetica dall; with comparative notes on deposit and suspension-feeding bivalves. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Physiology 56 (4): 573 - 575.
  • Ricketts, Edward F. & Calvin, Jack. 1952. Between Pacific Tides. 502 pp. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.
  • Shanks, A. L. 2001. An identification guide to the larval marine invertebrates of the Pacific Northwest. Corvallis, Oregon: Oregon State University Press.
  • Smith, Gertrude. 1928. Food Material as a Factor in Growth rate of some Pacific clams. Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada 22 (3): 287 - 292.
  • Turgeon, D. D., J. F. Quinn, Jr., A. E. Bogan, E. V. Coan, F. G. Hochberg, W. G. Lyons, et al. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks, 2nd ed. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26. 526
  • Weymouth, Frank W. 1920. The edible clams, mussels, and scallops of California. 126 pp. Sacramento, California: California State Printing Office.
  • Woodward, B.B. 1913. The life of the mollusca. 158 pp. London, England: Methuen & Co. Ltd.


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