The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Beccaloni G., Scoble M., Kitching I., Simonsen T., Robinson G., Pitkin B., Hine A. & Lyal C. (2015). LepIndex: The Global Lepidoptera Names Index (version 12.3, Jan 2012). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2015. Insect Visitors of Illinois Wildflowers.  World Wide Web electronic publication., version (09/2015) 
    See:   Abbreviations for Insect ActivitiesAbbreviations for Scientific ObserversReferences for behavioral observations
  • Holzberg, , Carol. November 1999. Monarchs, moths and more. Technology and Learning, 4: 4-46.
  • Kitching, I. 1999. "Evolution Biology of Hawk Moths" (On-line). Accessed March 21, 1999 at
  • Lawrence, C. 1997. Early appearance of Macroglossum stellatarum. Entomologist's Record & Journal of Variation, 109: 7-8.
  • Nicholson, , Rob. May 1999. The Blackest Flower in the world. Natural History, 4: 60-63.
  • Struttmann, , Jane. 1999. Accessed March 12, 2000 at
  • Tuttle, James P. 2007. The Hawk Moths of North America: A Natural History Study of the Sphingidae of the United States and Canada. 253


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