The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Arango C.P., Soler-Membrives A. & Miller K.J. 2010. Genetic differentiation in the circum-Antarctic sea spider Nymphon australe (Pycnogonida;Nymphonidae). Deep-Sea Research II. doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2010.05.019.
  • Arnaud F. & Bamber R.N. 1987. The biology of Pycnogonida. Advances in Marine Biology 24, 1?95.
  • Bamber, R. (2007). Nymphon australe Hodgson, 1902. In: Bamber, R.N., El Nagar, A. & Arango, C. (Eds) (2016). Pycnobase: World Pycnogonida Database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • Child C.A. 1995. Antarctic and Subantarctic Pycnogonida: Nymphonidae, Colossendeidae, Rhynchothoraxidae, Pycnogonidae, Endeididae, and Callipallenidae. In: S.D. Cairns (Ed.) Biology of the Antarctic Seas XXIV. Antarctic Research Series 69, pp. 165.
  • Hodgson, T. V. 1902. Crustacea. Report on the Collections of Natural History made in the Antarctic Regions during the Voyage of the 'Southern Cross,' pp. 257-8. External link.
  • Hodgson, T. V. 1907. Pycnogonida. National Antarctic Expedition: Natural History, Vol. III., pp.1-71, 10 pl. British Museum (N.H.) London. External link.
  • Land J. van der (ed) (†) (2015). URMO: UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (version Nov 2008). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Munilla T. & Soler-Membrives A. Check-list of the pycnogonids from Antarctic and sub-Antarctic water: zoogeographic implications. Antarctic Science 21, 99-111.
  • Möbius, K. 1901. Arktische und Subantarktische Pantopoden. Fauna arctica. Eine Zusammenstellung der arktischen Tierformen, mit besonderer Berüchsichtigung des Spitzbergen Gebietes auf Grund der Ergebnisse der Deutschen Expedition in das Nördliche Eismeer im Jahre 1898. Band II., Lief. i, pp. 35-64. External link.
  • van der Land, J. (ed). (2008). UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (URMO).


EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!