The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Arango C.P., Soler-Membrives A. & Miller K.J. 2010. Genetic differentiation in the circum-Antarctic sea spider Nymphon australe (Pycnogonida;Nymphonidae). Deep-Sea Research II. doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2010.05.019.
  • Arnaud F. & Bamber R.N. 1987. The biology of Pycnogonida. Advances in Marine Biology 24, 1?95.
  • Bamber, R. (2015). Nymphon australe Hodgson, 1902. In: Bamber, R.N., El Nagar, A. & Staples, D. (Eds) (2015). Pycnobase: World Pycnogonida Database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • Child C.A. 1995. Antarctic and Subantarctic Pycnogonida: Nymphonidae, Colossendeidae, Rhynchothoraxidae, Pycnogonidae, Endeididae, and Callipallenidae. In: S.D. Cairns (Ed.) Biology of the Antarctic Seas XXIV. Antarctic Research Series 69, pp. 165.
  • Land J. van der (ed) (†) (2015). URMO: UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (version Nov 2008). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Munilla T. & Soler-Membrives A. Check-list of the pycnogonids from Antarctic and sub-Antarctic water: zoogeographic implications. Antarctic Science 21, 99-111.
  • UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms


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