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Family Pycnogonidae is one pycnogonid family in which females lack ovigerous legs entirely. This is true for some other families as well, while in others the females have reduced ovigerous legs. Females release eggs from gonopores which are present on several legs near the base. The male, which is standing over or under her, fertilizes the eggs then gathers them up and sticks them to his ovigerous legs, where he cares for them. The eggs hatch as small protonymphon larvae which can swim. In a related closely related species to this one (P. litorale), the larva loses all three pairs of its larval legs and its proboscis at the fifth molt, then produces the adult proboscis and legs during later molts.