The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Hayward, P.J. & Ryland, J.S. (ed.), (1995b). Handbook of the marine fauna of North-West Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press. External link.
  • Holotype: Bowerbank. 1882. Ray Society. 4: 96-98, pl.6, f.4-8.
  • Howson, C.M. & Picton, B.E. (ed.), (1997). The species directory of the marine fauna and flora of the British Isles and surrounding seas. Belfast: Ulster Museum. [Ulster Museum publication, no. 276.] External link.
  • Moss, D., & Ackers, G. (eds.), (1982). The UCS Sponge Guide. Produced by R. Earll. Ross-on-Wye: The Underwater Conservation Society. External link.
  • Van Soest R.W.M, Boury-Esnault N., Hooper J.N.A., Rützler K., de Voogd N.J., Alvarez de Glasby B., Hajdu E., Pisera A.B., Manconi R., Schoenberg C., Janussen D., Tabachnick K.R. Klautau M., Picton B., Kelly M., Vacelet J., Dohrmann M., D (2015). WoRMS Porifera: World Porifera database (version 2015-08-01). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Van Soest, R.W.M. 1993. Affinities of the Marine Demospongiae Fauna of the Cape Verde Islands and Tropical West Africa. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 159: 205-219.


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