HabitSpreading, erect to decumbent perennial herbs, woody at the base, to 1 mm tall and to 1 m in diameter. Stems 7-12 mm in diameter at base, green, densely velvety pubescent with a mixture of simple uniseriate trichomes, the largest stout, patent 5-9-celled trichomes 1.5-2 mm long from unicellular or multicellular bases, either eglandular or tipped with tiny 1-celled glands or occasionally 4-celled glandular heads, the abundance and density of these patent trichomes extremely variable, shorter more slender trichomes to 0.5 mm long, sparser and mixed with a variety of small glandular trichomes, the most common 1-2-celled with a 4-celled glandular head, in more glandular populations the head occasionally elliptical and 8-celled, 1-celled trichomes with tiny 1-celled glandular heads also present, but scattered amongst the more common, larger, glandular trichomes.
Sympodial StructureSympodial units 2-foliate; internodes 2-9 cm long.
LeavesLeaves interrupted imparipinnate, (2-) 3.5-13 cm long, (1) 1.5-6.5 cm wide, green, densely pubescent like the stems, more glandular trichomes present, adaxially densely glandular pubescent with stout patent trichomes to 1 mm long, along the rachis and midveins, abaxially more densely velvety pubescent, the stout trichomes more abundant along the veins, but also on the lamina, in general lamina trichomes shorter than those of the veins or the stems; primary leaflets 3-5 pairs, the basal pair usually half the size of the rest, orbicular to broadly elliptic, elliptic in populations from around Arequipa, the base cordate to truncate, somewhat oblique and decurrent onto the rachis, the margins crenate to dentate to irregularly lobed ca. halfway to the rachis or more, the lobing deeper near the leaflet base, the apex rounded or acute; terminal leaflet usually larger than the lateral leaflets (0.4-) 1-3.5 cm long, (0.1-) 0.7-2 cm wide, the petiolule 0.05-1 cm long, the apex usually more acuminate than that of the lateral leaflets; lateral leaflets (0.2-) 0.7-3 cm long, (0.1-) 0.7-2 cm wide, the petiolule to 1 cm long, or absent and the leaflets sessile and decurrent onto the rachis; secondary leaflets sometimes present on the larger lateral leaflets and on the terminal leaflet, (0.04-) 0.1-0.3 cm long, (0.02-) 0.1-0.3 cm wide, broadly decurrent on the leaflet rachis, more developed acroscopically; tertiary leaflets absent; interjected leaflets (0-) 5-10, usually 2-4 between each primary leaflet, 0.1-0.6 cm long, 0.1-0.5 cm wide, sessile, occasionally with a short petiolule to 0.3 cm long; petiole 0.2-1 (-2) cm long; pseudostipules present but not developed at all nodes, 0.4-1 cm long, 0.5-1 cm wide, the margins crenate, glandular pubescent like the leaves.
Inflorescences. Inflorescences 4-12 cm long, simple or more often once branched and bifurcate, with (5-) 8-16 flowers, usually bracteate, the bracts 0.3-0.5 cm long, 0.3-0.5 cm wide, the margins rounded crenate, peduncle 2.1-8 (-12) cm long, densely pubescent like the stems with a mixture of glandular and eglandular trichomes. Pedicels 0.7-1.5 cm long, articulated at the middle or in the distal half, often more densely pubescent with patent trichomes distal to the articulation. Buds 0.8-1.2 cm long, 0.4-0.6 cm wide, conical, strongly curved, with the corolla more than halfway exserted from the calyx just before anthesis.
FlowersFlowers with the calyx tube minute, to 0.05 cm long, the lobes 0.3-0.6 cm long, 0.07-0.15 cm wide, lanceolate to narrowly deltate, the sinuses hyaline, densely pubescent with simple trichomes like those of the inflorescence to 0.5 mm long; corolla 1.5-2.4 (-3.2) cm in diameter, rotate-stellate, vivid yellow, the tube 0.3-0.8 cm long, the lobes 0.6-0.9 (-1.2) cm long, 0.6-09 cm wide, abaxially sparsely pubescent with white uniseriate trichomes to 0.5 mm long, these more abundant along the margins, the tips densely papillate-pubescent, reflexed at anthesis and the margins irregularly undulate; staminal column 0.7-1 cm long, 0.3-0.4 cm wide, strongly curved, the filaments 0.5 mm long, not forming a united tube, the anthers 0.45-0.6 cm long, the upper two usually larger and curved, the sterile apical appendage 0.25-0.4 cm long, often greenish; ovary globose, glabrous or with a few slender uniseriate trichomes at the apex; style 1.1-1.3 cm long, ca. 0.5 mm in diameter, curved, densely white pubescent 1/2 to 3/4 of its length, exserted 1-2.5 mm from the staminal column; stigma capitate, green.
FruitsFruit 0.9-1.3 cm in diameter, globose, 2-locular, green to greenish white with a dark green or purple stripe from the apex to the base and sometimes flushed with purple when ripe, sparsely to densely pubescent with a mixture of simple uniseriate trichomes, stout patent, 2-4-celled trichomes 1.5-2 mm long, eglandular or with 1-celled glandular heads, mixed with sparse to dense glandular 1-celled trichomes with 4-celled heads, the berries sometimes glabrescent when ripe, the trichomes apparently deciduous; fruiting pedicels 1.5-2.1 cm long, usually straight, occasionally somewhat angled towards the inflorescence axis at the articulation; calyx lobes in fruit 0.9-1.7 cm long, 0.15-0.2 cm wide, investing the fruit like a cage, usually as long as or longer than the berry, in populations from near Arequipa always longer than the berry.
SeedsSeeds 1.7-3.0 mm long, 1.2-1.6 mm wide, 0.5-0.8 mm thick, obovate, dark brown, pubescent with hair-like outgrowths of the lateral testa cell walls, these adpressed and giving a silky appearance to the surface or sometimes shaggy, narrowly winged (0.2 mm) at the apex and acute at the base.
Catalog Number: US 2249637
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): H. Blood & L. Tremelling
Year Collected: 1937
Locality: Between Yangos and Cantas, near Lima., Lima, Peru, South America
Elevation (m): 1707
- Holotype: Muller, C. H. 1940. U.S.D.A. Bur. Pl. Industr. Misc. Publ. 382: 23.; Holotype: Macbride, J. F. 1962. Fieldiana, Bot. 13 (5B/1): 160.
Life History and Behavior
Evolution and Systematics
Systematics or Phylogenetics
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