HabitPerennial herbs, erect initially, later procumbent, slender to robust and viny, to 3 m long. Stems 10-12 mm in diameter at base, green, densely pubescent, the pubescence composed of simple uniseriate trichomes of several lengths, the longest 0.5-2 cm long, ca. 0.1 mm wide, some gland-tipped, the longer ones with minute single-celled glands, among dense 1-2-celled trichomes, some gland-tipped, the glands unicellular and minute or multicellular, the plant with a strong citrus scent, smaller trichomes unicellular and usually gland-tipped.
Sympodial StructureSympodial units 3-foliate; internodes 1.5-3.5 (-6) cm long.
LeavesLeaves interrupted imparipinnate, 5-25 cm long, 2-17 cm wide, bright green, densely pubescent with uniseriate glandular trichomes ca. 0.5 mm long, and shorter unicellular trichomes on both surfaces, more abundant abaxially, lime green; primary leaflets 2-4 pairs, subopposite or alternate, ovate or obovate, the base oblique and decurrent basioscopically, cuneate to cordate, the margins deeply lobed, forming secondary, tertiary and occasionally quaternary leaflets of varying sizes, the apex acute to rounded; terminal leaflet scarcely larger than the laterals, often with secondary leaflets, 0.5-2 cm long, 0.4-1 cm wide, the petiolule 0.2-0.3 cm long; lateral leaflets 2-7 cm long, 1-4.5 cm wide, the petiolule 0.1-0.6 cm long; secondary leaflets present, always more than (6-) 10-30 per leaf, 0.3-1 cm long, 0.2-0.5 cm wide, sessile or with a petiolule to 0.4 cm long; tertiary leaflets usually present, ca. 0.1-0.2 cm long, 0.1-0.2 cm wide, sessile or with a minute petiolule; interjected leaflets usually present, (3-) 5-22 (-30), 0.1-0.5 cm long, 0.1-0.5 cm wide, sessile or with a short petiolule to 0.3 cm long; petiole 0.6-4 cm long; pseudostipules absent.
InflorescencesInflorescences to 10 cm long, simple or occasionally 2-3-branched, with up to 12 flowers, usually ebracteate, but bract and bracteole-like leaflets occasionally present in some populations, peduncle 1-3.5 cm long, pubescent like the stems. Pedicels 0.5-1.8 cm long, articulated just below the middle. Buds 0.7-1 cm long, 0.3-0.4 cm wide, conical, straight, with the corolla about halfway exserted from the calyx just before anthesis.
FlowersFlowers with the calyx tube 0.05-0.1 cm long, the lobes 0.3-0.6 cm long, 0.1-0.15 cm wide, linear, pubescent with long and short simple uniseriate trichomes, the apex acute; corolla 1.6-3.2 cm in diameter, pentagonal, occasionally somewhat bilaterally symmetric due to fusion of adjacent lobes, yellow, the tube 0.5-0.7 cm long, the lobes 0.7-1.3 cm long, 0.3-0.7 cm wide, densely pubescent along the midveins with tangled transparent uniseriate trichomes ca. 0.5 mm long, reflexed at anthesis; staminal column 0.3-0.7 cm long, narrowly cone-shaped, straight, the filaments 1-2.7 mm long, the anthers 0.3-0.45 cm long, the sterile apical appendage 0.1-0.2 (-0.4) cm long; ovary conical, minutely glandular-villous; style 0.4-0.8 cm long, straight, < 0.5 mm in diameter, usually included in the staminal column, rarely exserted to less than 0.5 mm long; stigma minute, green.
FruitsFruits 0.6-1.1 cm in diameter, globose, 2-locular, becoming pale to deep orange at maturity, glabrescent to densely pubescent with weak eglandular simple uniseriate patent trichomes to 3 mm long, and smaller uniseriate glandular trichomes with 4-celled heads; fruiting pedicels 0.7-1.5 cm long, curving towards the axis; calyx lobes in fruit accrescent, 1.4 cm long, 0.1-0.3 cm wide, often longer than fruit, basal half of calyx tightly appressed to berry base.
SeedsSeeds 1.5-2.0 mm long, 0.8-1.2 mm wide, 0.4-0.5 mm thick, obovate, pale brown, pubescent with hair-like outgrowths of the lateral testa cell walls, these adpressed and giving a silky appearance to the surface or more often shaggy, narrowly winged (ca. 0.2 mm) at the apex and acute at the base.
Life History and Behavior
Evolution and Systematics
Systematics or Phylogenetics
References and More Information
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