The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Almond, J. E. 1985. The Silurian-Devonian fossil record of the Myriapoda. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London Series B 309:227-238.
  • Borucki, H. 1996. Evolution und phylogenetisches System der Chilopoda (Mandibulata, Tracheata). Verhandlungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins Hamburg 35:95-226.
  • Brusca, Richard C., and Gary J. Brusca. 2002. Invertebrates, Second Edition. xx + 936
  • Decker, Peter, Reip, Hans Simon, Voigtlaender, Karin (2014): Millipedes and centipedes in German greenhouses (Myriapoda: Diplopoda, Chilopoda). Biodiversity Data Journal 2, 1066: 1066-1066, URL:
  • Dohle, W. 1985. Phylogenetic pathways in the Chilopoda. Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde 55:55-66.
  • Dohle, W. 1990. Some observations on morphology and affinities of Craterostigmus tasmanianus (Chilopoda). Pages 69-79 in Proceedings of the 7th International Congress of Myriapodology. A. Minelli, ed. Brill, Leiden.
  • Edgecombe, G. D. 2007. Centipede systematics: progress and problems. Pages 327-341 in: Zhang, Z.-Q. & Shear, W.A., eds. Linnaeus Tercentenary: Progress in Invertebrate Taxonomy. Zootaxa 1668:1–766.
  • Edgecombe, G. D. and G. Giribet. 2002. Myriapod phylogeny and the relationships of Chilopoda. Pages 143-168 in Biodiversidad, Taxonomía y Biogeografia de Artrópodos de México: Hacia una Síntesis de su Conocimiento. J. Llorente Bousquets and J. J. Morrone, eds. Prensas de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Edgecombe, G. D. and G. Giribet. 2004. Adding mitochondrial sequence data (16S rRNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) to the phylogeny of centipedes (Myriapoda: Chilopoda): an analysis of morphology and four molecular loci. Journal of Zoological Systematics & Evolutionary Research 42(2):89-134.
  • Edgecombe, G. D. and G. Giribet. 2007. Evolutionary biology of centipedes (Myriapoda: Chilopoda). Annual Review of Entomology 52:1-151.
  • Edgecombe, G. D., G. Giribet and W. C. Wheeler. 1999. Phylogeny of Chilopoda: Combining 18S and 28S rRNA sequences and morphology. Pages 293-331 in Evolución y Filogenia de Arthropoda. A. Melic, J. J. de Haro, M. Mendez and I. Ribera. eds. Boletín de la Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa 26.
  • Edgecombe, G. D., G. Giribet, and W. C. Wheeler. 2002. Phylogeny of Henicopidae (Chilopoda : Lithobiomorpha): a combined analysis of morphology and five molecular loci. Systematic Entomology 27:31-64.
  • Edgecombe, Gregory D., and Gonzalo Giribet. 2006. Evolutionary Biology of Centipedes (Myriapoda: Chilopoda). Annual Review of Entomology, vol. 52. 151-170
  • Giribet, G. and G. D. Edgecombe. 2006. Conflict between datasets and phylogeny of centipedes: an analysis based on seven genes and morphology. Proceedings of the Royal Society Series B 273:531-538.
  • Giribet, G., S. Carranza, M. Riutort, J. Baguña, and C. Ribera. 1999. Internal phylogeny of the Chilopoda (Myriapoda, Arthropoda) using complete 18S rDNA and partial 28S rDNA sequences. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London Series B 354:215-222.
  • Jeram, A. J., P. A. Selden, and D. Edwards. 1990. Land animals in the Silurian: arachnids and myriapods from Shropshire, England. Science 250:658-661.
  • L. W. Swan, The ecology of the high Himalayas, Sci. Am. 205:68-78, from pp. 76-77 (October 1961).
  • Lewis, J. G. E. 1981. The Biology of Centipedes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Minelli, A. 1993. Chilopoda. Pages 57-114 in Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates. Volume 12. Onychophora, Chilopoda and lesser Protostomata. F. W. Harrison and M. E. Rice, eds. Wiley-Liss, New York, Chichester, Weinheim, Brisbane, Singapore, Toronto.
  • Mundel, P. 1979. The centipedes (Chilopoda) of the Mazon Creek. Pages 361-378 in Mazon Creek Fossils. M. H. Nitecki, ed. Academic Press, NewYork.
  • Prunescu, C. C. 1996. Plesiomorphic and apomorphic characters states in the class Chilopoda. Mémoires du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle Serie A 169:299-306.
  • Regier, J. C. and J. W. Shultz. 2001. A phylogenetic analysis of Myriapoda (Arthropoda) using two nuclear protein-encoding genes. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 132:469-486.
  • Shear, W. A. and P. M. Bonamo. 1988. Devonobiomorpha, a new order of centipedes (Chilopoda) from the middle Devonian of Gilboa, NewYork State, USA, and the phylogeny of centipede orders. American Museum Novitates 2927:1-30.
  • Shear, W. A. and P. M. Bonamo. 1990. Fossil centipedes from the Devonian of New York State, USA. Pages 89-96 in Proceedings of the 7th International Congress of Myriapodology. A. Minelli, ed. Brill, Leiden.
  • Wirkner, C. S. and G. Pass. 2002. The circulatory system in Chilopoda: functional morphology and phylogenetic aspects. Acta Zoologica 83:193-202.
  • WoRMS (2004). Chilopoda. In: Barber, A. D. (2016). World database of littoral Myriapoda. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at


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