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BiologyCut-leaved germander typically occurs as a biennial species, which flowers once, and then dies in the UK, but may occasionally occur as an annual (2)(3). In cultivation, and possibly sometimes in the wild, some plants may flower more than once, and be short-lived (to at least four years) perennials, which die back to a bud at ground level in the autumn (3). The life-cycle is variable, and depends on the time of germination and yearly weather conditions. The seeds usually germinate in spring or autumn but seedlings may appear at other times of year depending on the weather, and bare ground is essential for this to happen (2)(3)(4). The flowers open from July to September (exceptionally November); they are either pollinated by bees, or self-fertilisation can take place. The seeds are heavy, and fall close to the parent plant, so the species is not a very good coloniser of new suitable habitats (2).