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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Western Ghats, Moist Deciduous Forests"
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Climber
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Distribution

Worldwide distribution

Native of India.
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© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Distribution: Native to India, cultivated and naturalized in the Antilles and throughout the tropics.

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"Maharashtra: Kolhapur, Pune, Raigad, Thane Karnataka: Belgaum, Chikmagalur, Mysore, N. Kanara Kerala: All districts Tamil Nadu: Coimbatore, Nilgiri, Tirunelveli"
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Global Distribution

Indo-Malesia, China and Mauritius

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: All Districts

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According to Bull. Dept. Med. Pl. Nep 3: 138 (1970) this species occurs in Nepal at '300 m in Terai region'.
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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Argyreia nervosa (Burm. f.) Bojer, Hort. Maurit. 224. 1837.

Fig. 63. E-F

Basionym: Convolvulus nervosus Burm. f.

Synonyms: Rivea nervosa (Burm. f.) H. Hallier

Argyreia speciosa (L.f.) Sweet

Twining liana, without latex, attaining more than 5 m in length. Stems cylindrical, densely canescent when young, becoming glabrous when mature. Leaves alternate; blades simple, 12-22(27) × 8.5-20 cm, cordiform, coriaceous, the apex obtuse to rounded, sometimes mucronate, the base cordiform, the margins entire; upper surface dark, dull, glabrous, with the venation slightly sunken; lower surface densely canescent, with the pinnate venation prominent; petioles 5-15 cm long, densely canescent. Flowers few, in axillary simple or double dichasial cymes; bracts foliaceous, ovate, acuminate, 2-5 cm long, canescent on the lower surface, forming an involucre at the base of the dichasia; peduncles densely canescent, up to 15 cm long. Calyx crateriform, canescent, accrescent, of 5 ovate sepals, obtuse, mucronate, 1.5-2 cm long; corolla lavender, dark violet in the throat, infundibuliform, 6-6.5 cm long, canescent outside, the limb with 5 slightly prominent, rounded lobes; stamens and style not exserted. Indehiscent fruits ovoid, 1-1.5 cm long, puberulous, the pericarp thick, subtended by the subwoody, persistent sepals, slightly shorter than the fruit; seeds light brown, ca. 5 mm long, densely appressed short-pubescent, with two sides flat and one convex, the hilum forming a navel.

Phenology: Flowering from April to August, collected in fruit in November.

Status: Exotic, cultivated in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, uncommon.

Selected Specimens Examined: Sargent, F.H. 754.

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Diagnostic

"An extensive woody climber with a stout stem; young shoots and branches covered by a silky white pubescence. Leaves ovate-cordate, apiculate at tip, 7.5-30 cm in diam., glabrous above, white tomentose(velvety) beneath. Flowers rose-purple with 7.5-30 cm long white- tomentose peduncles, borne in axillary many-flowered cymes; bracts ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, 3-4 cm long. Fruits (berries)globose, 2 cm in diam, apiculate, indehiscent."
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Diagnostic

Habit: Climbing shrub
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Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

Grown as medicinal plants
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: December-June
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Argyreia nervosa

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Argyreia nervosa

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Medicinal
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Wikipedia

Argyreia nervosa

"Hawaiian Baby Woodrose" redirects here. For Hawaiian woodrose, see Merremia tuberosa.

Argyreia nervosa is a perennial climbing vine that is native to the Indian subcontinent and introduced to numerous areas worldwide, including Hawaii, Africa and the Caribbean. Though it can be invasive, it is often prized for its aesthetic value. Common names include Hawaiian Baby Woodrose, Adhoguda अधोगुडा or Vidhara विधारा (Sanskrit), Elephant Creeper and Woolly Morning Glory. There are two botanical varieties: Argyreia nervosa var. nervosa described here, and Argyrea nervosa var. speciosa, a species used in ayurvedic medicine, but with little to no psychoactive value.

A. nervosa seeds contain various ergoline alkaloids, such as ergine,[2] which can produce psychedelic effects.[3][unreliable source?] A study reported stereoisomers of ergine to be found in the seeds at a concentration of 0.325% of dry weight.[4]

History[edit]

A. nervosa is a rare example of a plant whose putative hallucinogenic properties were not recognized until recent times. While several of its cousins in the Convolvulaceae family, such as the Rivea corymbosa (Ololiuhqui) and Ipomoea tricolor (Tlitliltzin), were used in shamanic rituals of Latin America for centuries, A. nervosa was not traditionally used for this purpose. Its properties were first brought to attention in the 1960s,[citation needed] despite the fact that the chemical composition of its seeds is nearly identical to those of the two species mentioned above, and the seeds contain the highest concentration of psychoactive compounds in the entire family.[citation needed]

Chemical constituents[edit]

The seeds of A. nervosa have been found to contain numerous chemical compounds.[5]

Glycosides[edit]

Argyroside
  • Argyroside, (24R)-ergost-5-en-11-oxo-3β-ol-α-D-glucopyranoside, a steroidal glycoside unique to Argyreia nervosa[6]

Ergolines[edit]

Ergoline alkaloids of known percentage
Compound namePercentage of dry seed weight constitutedChemical structure
Isoergine0.188%
Ergine0.136%Ergine structure
Ergometrine0.049%Ergometrine structure
Lysergic acid hydroxyethylamide0.035%Lysergic acid hydroxyethylamide structure
Isolysergic acid hydroxyethylamide0.024%
Elymoclavine0.022%Elymoclavine structure
Ergometrinine0.011%Ergometrinine structure
Chanoclavine0.016%Chanoclavine structure
Ergoline alkaloids of unknown percentage
Compound nameChemical structure
AgroclavineAgroclavine structure
Chanoclavine IIChanoclavine II structure
FestuclavineFestuclavine structure
LysergeneLysergene structure
LysergolLysergol structure
Isolysergol
SetoclavineIsolysergol structure
Isosetoclavine

Hydroxycinnamic acids[edit]

Hydroxycinnamic acids
Compound nameChemical structure
Caffeic acidCaffeic acid structure
Ethyl caffeateEthyl caffeate structure

Fatty acids[edit]

Fatty acids
Compound nameChemical structure
Myristoleic acidMyristoleic acid structure
Myristic acidMyristic acid structure
Palmitic acidPalmitic acid structure
Linoleic acidLinoleic acid structure
Linolenic acid
Oleic acidOleic acid structure
Stearic acidStearic acid
Nonadecylic acidNonadecyclic acid
Eicosenoic acid
Heneicosylic acidHeneicosylic acid structure
Behenic acidBehenic acid structure
12-methylmyristic acid
15-methylstearic acid
Glycosides of fatty acids
Fatty acidChemical structure
Palmitic acidPalmitic acid structure
Oleic acidOleic acid structure
Stearic acidStearic acid structure
Behenic acidBehenic acid structure
Linoleic acidLinoleic acid structure
Linolenic acidα-Linolenic acid structure

Legality[edit]

Seeds[edit]

Arygeria nervosa seeds next to a metric ruler.

In most countries it is legal to purchase, sell or germinate A. nervosa seeds. Depending on the country, it may be illegal to buy seeds with the intention to consume them, and several countries have outlawed ergine-containing seeds altogether. In Australia, if the seeds are first treated to discourage use, then there are no restrictions on trade.[7]

Extracted chemicals[edit]

Extracting ergine from A. nervosa seeds is illegal in the USA, since it is a scheduled substance. It is classified as a schedule III depressant by the DEA, although the substance has hallucinogenic/psychedelic properties.[8][unreliable source?]

Benefits[edit]

Leaves[edit]

In an animal model of ulcers in rats, large doses of the extract of Argyrea nervosa var. speciosa leaves (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight) showed dose-dependent antiulcer activity and cured the ulcers.[9]

Root[edit]

When an extract of A. nervosa root was administered to male mice, both mounting and mating activity saw an increase, showing aphrodisiac activity. The litter from females inseminated by root-treated males also saw a significantly increased the male:female ratio versus the control group, suggesting--but not confirming--the ethnomedical belief of increased male offspring is accurate. Mechanisms for the altered male:female ratio have yet to be explained.[10]

Flowers[edit]

When administered to male mice, an extract of A. nervosa flowers exhibited aphrodisiac activity to a similar degree of its root extract.[10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Taxon: Argyreia nervosa (Burm. f.) Bojer". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2002-09-03. Retrieved 2010-11-10. 
  2. ^ Halpern, J.H. (2004). "Hallucinogens and dissociative agents naturally growing in the United States". Pharmacology & Therapeutics 102 (2): 131–138. doi:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2004.03.003. Although LSD does not occur in nature, a close analogue, lysergic acid amide (LSA, ‘‘ergine’’) is found in the seeds of Argyreia nervosa (Hawaiian baby woodrose) 
  3. ^ Hawaiian Baby Woodrose (Argyreia nervosa) Vault, Erowid.org, 2009-12-01, retrieved 2012-04-26 
  4. ^ Chao JM, Der Marderosian AH (1973). "Ergoline alkaloidal constituents of Hawaiian baby wood rose, Argyreia nervosa (Burmf) Bojer". J. Pharm. Sci. 62 (4): 588–91. doi:10.1002/jps.2600620409. 
  5. ^ Mahapatra, Sujata; Panda, Jnyanaranjan; Mishra, Nikunja (9 Feb 2013). "Traditional uses and Phytopharmacological Aspects of Argyreia nervosa" (PDF). Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Research 4 (1): 23–32. ISSN 2229-3787. Retrieved 2014-12-29.  |first1= missing |last1= in Authors list (help)
  6. ^ Rahman, A.; Ali, M.; Khan, N. Z. (2003). "Argyroside from Argyreia nervosa Seeds.". ChemInform 34 (21). doi:10.1002/chin.200321168. ISSN 0931-7597. 
  7. ^ Sunil K. Jaiswal, Chandana V. Rao, Brijesh Sharma, Pritee Mishra, Sanjib Das, Mukesh K. Dubey (1 September 2011). "Gastroprotective effect of standardized leaf extract from Argyreia speciosa on experimental gastric ulcers in rats". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 137 (1): 1–944. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2011.05.028. 
  8. ^ a b Subramoniam, A.; Madhavachandran, V.; Ravi, K.; Anuja, V.S. (2007). "Aphrodisiac property of the elephant creeper Argyreia nervosa" (PDF). J Endocrinol Reprod 11 (2): 82–85. Retrieved 2014-12-30. 

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