The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1.  Barbour, M. G.; MacMahon, J. A.; Bamberg, S. A.; Ludwig, J. A. 1977. The        structure and distribution of Larrea communities. In: Mabry, T. J.;        Hunziker, J. H.; DiFeo, D. R., Jr., eds. Creosote bush: Biology and        chemistry of Larrea in New World deserts. U.S./IBP Synthesis Series 6.        Stroudsburg, PA: Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, Inc.: 227-251.  [7172]
  • 10.  Holland, Robert F. 1986. Preliminary descriptions of the terrestrial        natural communities of California. Sacramento, CA: California Department        of Fish and Game. 156 p.  [12756]
  • 11.  Jackson, Laura L. 1991. Recovery of abandoned arid farmland: Highlights        Desert Restoration Task Force meeting. Restoration & Management Notes.        9(1): 59-60.  [16570]
  • 12.  Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock,        Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2d ed. Berkeley, CA: University of        California Press. 1085 p.  [6563]
  • 14.  Latting, June, ed. 1976. Symposium proceedings--plant communities of        southern California. Special Publication No. 2. Berkeley, CA: California        Native Plant Society. 164 p.  [1414]
  • 16.  MacMahon, James A. 1983. Nothing succeeds like succession: ecology and        the human lot. 67th Faculty Honor Lecture, Utah State University, Logan        Utah. Utah State University Press. 31 p.  [7916]
  • 17.  Mozingo, Hugh N. 1987. Shrubs of the Great Basin: A natural history.        Reno, NV: University of Nevada Press. 342 p.  [1702]
  • 18.  Munz, Philip A. 1974. A flora of southern California. Berkeley, CA:        University of California Press. 1086 p.  [4924]
  • 19.  Pendleton, Rosemary L.; Pendleton, Burton K.; Harper, Kimball T. 1989.        Breeding systems of woody plant species in Utah. In: Wallace, Arthur;        McArthur, E. Durant; Haferkamp, Marshall R., compilers.        Proceedings--symposium on shrub ecophysiology and biotechnology; 1987        June 30 - July 2; Logan, UT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-256. Ogden, UT: U.S.        Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research        Station: 5-22.  [5918]
  • 1996. database, NODC Taxonomic Code
  • 1996. database, The PLANTS Database
  • 2000. database, The PLANTS Database
  • 21.  Romney, E. M.; Wallace, A.; Kaaz, H.; Hale, V. Q. 1980. The role of        shrubs on redistribution of mineral nutrients in soil in the Mojave        Desert. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs. 0(4): 124-133.  [4248]
  • 22.  Romney, E. M.; Hunter, R. B.; Wallace, A. 1990. Field trip report:        natural and managed recovery of vegetation on disturbed areas at the        Nevada Test Site. In: McArthur, E. Durant; Romney, Evan M.; Smith,        Stanley D.; Tueller, Paul T., compilers. Proceedings--symposium on        cheatgrass invasion, shrub die-off, and other aspects of shrub biology        and management; 1989 April 5-7; Las Vegas, NV. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-276.        Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain        Research Station: 344-349.  [12870]
  • 25.  Thomas, Renee L.; Anderson, Roger C. 1993. Influence of topography on        stand composition in a midwestern ravine forest. American Midland        Naturalist. 130(1): 1-12.  [1742]
  • 26.  Rudolf, Paul O. 1974. Lycium L.  wolfberry. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., ed.        Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agriculture Handbook No.        450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service:        522-524.  [7699]
  • 28.  Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest.        Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p.  [7707]
  • 29.  Turner, Frederick B.; Randall, David C. 1987. The phenology of desert        shrubs in southern Nevada. Journal of Arid Environments. 13: 119-128.        [2764]
  • 30.  U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982.        National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names.        SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p.  [11573]
  • 31.  Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States,        their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, DC: U.S.        Department of Agriculture. 362 p.  [4240]
  • 32.  Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest.        Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p.  [7707]
  • 33.  Wallace, A.; Romney, E. M. 1972. Radioecology and ecophysiology of        desert plants at the Nevada Test Site. Rep. TID-25954. [Washington, DC]
  • 34.  Webb, Robert H.; Steiger, John W.; Newman, Evelyn B. 1988. The response        of vegetation to disturbance in Death Valley National Monument,        California. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1793. Washington, DC: U.S.        Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey. 69 p.  [8915]
  • 4.  Brown, David E.; Minnich, Richard A. 1986. Fire and changes in creosote        bush scrub of the western Sonoran Desert, California. American Midland        Naturalist. 116(2): 411-422.  [537]
  • 5.  Burk, Jack H. 1977. Sonoran Desert. In: Barbour, M. G.; Major, J., eds.        Terrestrial vegetation of California. New York: John Wiley and Sons:        869-899.  [3731]
  • 7.  Goodwin, John G., Jr.; Hungerford, C. Roger. 1977. Habitat use by native        Gambel's and scaled quail and released masked bobwhite quail in southern        Arizona. Res. Pap. RM-197. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment        Station. 8 p.  [14970]
  • 8.  Gullion, Gordon W. 1964. Wildlife uses of Nevada plants. Contributions        toward a flora of Nevada No. 49. Beltsville, MD: U. S. Department of        Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Arboretum Crops        Research Division. 170 p.  [6729]
  • 9.  Hanley, Thomas A.; Brady, Ward W. 1977. Seasonal fluctuations in        nutrient content of feral burro forages, lower Colorado River Valley,        Arizona. Journal of Range Management. 30(5): 370-375.  [4336]
  • CONABIO. 2009. Catálogo taxonómico de especies de México. 1. In Capital Nat. México. CONABIO, Mexico City.
  • Hickman, J. C. 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California 1–1400. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Kearney, T. H. & R. Peebles. 1951. Arizona Fl.
  • Lehr, J. H. 1978. Cat. Fl. Arizona
  • Munz, P. A. 1974. Fl. S. Calif. 1–1086. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2013). ITIS Regional: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Apr 2011). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 7(2): 388. 1868. (Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts)
  • Shreve, F. & I. L. Wiggins. 1964. Veg. Fl. Sonoran Des. 2 vols. Stanford University Press, Stanford.


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