Regularity: Regularly occurring
Indo-Malesia; introduced into many countries
State - Kerala, District/s: Palakkad, Kottayam, Alappuzha, Kollam, Idukki, Pathanamthitta, Malappuram, Kozhikkode, Wayanad, Kannur, Thrissur"
Habitat & Distribution
Foodplant / spot causer
pycnidium of Ascochyta coelomycetous anamorph of Ascochyta impatientis causes spots on live leaf of Impatiens balsamina
Foodplant / pathogen
sporangium of Plasmopara obducens infects and damages pale green leaf of Impatiens balsamina
Foodplant / parasite
Podosphaera balsaminae parasitises Impatiens balsamina
Life History and Behavior
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Barcode data: Impatiens balsamina
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Impatiens balsamina
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
National NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable
Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems
Leaf: In Surinam, the crushed leaves are added with salt to castor oil and packed around a finger affected by whitlow; the whitlow disappears in a short time. Also used to heal torn nails (fingernail, toenail).
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It is an annual plant growing to 20–75 cm tall, with a thick, but soft stem. The leaves are spirally-arranged, 2.5–9 cm long and 1–2.5 cm broad, with a deeply toothed margin. The flowers are pink, red, mauve, lilac, or white, and 2.5–5 cm diameter; they are pollinated by bees and other insects, and also by nectar-feeding birds. The ripe seed capsules undergo explosive dehiscence.
Different parts of the plant are used as traditional remedies for disease and skin afflictions. Juice from the leaves is used to treat warts and snakebite, and the flower is applied to burns. This species has been used as indigenous traditional medicine in Asia for rheumatism, fractures, and other ailments. In Korean folk medicine, this impatiens species is used as a medicine called bongseonhwa dae (봉선화대) for the treatment of constipation and gastritis. Chinese used the plant to treat those bitten by snakes or who ingested poisonous fish. Juice from the stalk, pulverised dried stalks, and pastes from the flowers were also used to treat a variety of ailments. Vietnamese wash their hair with an extract of the plant to stimulate hair growth. One in vitro study found extracts of this impatiens species, especially of the seed pod, to be active against antibiotic-resistant strains of Helicobacter pylori. It is also an inhibitor of 5α-reductases, enzymes that reduce testosterone levels.
The naphthoquinones lawsone, or hennotannic acid, and lawsone methyl ether and methylene-3,3'-bilawsone are some of the active compounds in I. balsamina leaves. It also contains kaempferol and several derivatives. Baccharane glycosides have been found in Chinese herbal remedies made from the seeds.
Names and etymology
|This section requires expansion. (August 2014)|
Common names in other languages include mírame lindo in Spanish, fèngxiānhuā (鳳仙花) in Mandarin Chinese, bóng nước or phượng tiên hoa (鳳仙花) in Vietnamese, bongseonhwa (봉선화; 鳳仙花) in Korean, hōsenka (鳳仙花) in Japanese, elepe in Hawaiian, and kamantigi in Chamorro.
- Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5.
- Impatiens balsamina. Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER).
- Plants for a Future: Impatiens balsamina
- Wang YC, Wu DC, Liao JJ, Wu CH, Li WY, Weng BC (2009). "In vitro activity of Impatiens balsamina L. against multiple antibiotic-resistant Helicobacter pylori". Am. J. Chin. Med. 37 (4): 713–22. doi:10.1142/S0192415X09007181. PMID 19655409.
- Park JH, Kim JM, Do WI (2003). "Pharmacognostical studies on the folk medicine bong seon wha dae". Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy 34 (3): 193–96.
- Christopher Cumo. "Impatiens". Encyclopedia of Cultivated Plants: From Acacia to Zinnia. Christopher Cumo, ed. ABC-CLIO, 2013. p. 523. ISBN 9781598847758
- Ishiguro K, Oku H, Kato T (February 2000). "Testosterone 5α‐reductase inhibitor bisnaphthoquinone derivative from Impatiens balsamina". Phytother Res 14 (1): 54–6. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1573(200002)14:1<54::AID-PTR540>3.0.CO;2-Q. PMID 10641051.
- Sakunphueak A, Panichayupakaranant P (2010). "Simultaneous determination of three naphthoquinones in the leaves of Impatiens balsamina L. by reversed‐phase high‐performance liquid chromatography". Phytochem Anal 21 (5): 444–50. doi:10.1002/pca.1216. PMID 20931623.
- Hua L, Peng Z, Chia LS, Goh NK, Tan SN (February 2001). "Separation of kaempferols in Impatiens balsamina flowers by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection". J Chromatogr A 909 (2): 297–303. doi:10.1016/S0021-9673(00)01102-X. PMID 11269529.
- Li HJ, Yu JJ, Li P (March 2011). "Simultaneous qualification and quantification of baccharane glycosides in Impatientis Semen by HPLC–ESI-MSD and HPLC–ELSD". J Pharm Biomed Anal 54 (4): 674–80. doi:10.1016/j.jpba.2010.10.014. PMID 21075577.
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