Citrus sinensis, orange or sweet orange (to distinguish it from related species, such as sour orange, C. aurantium, and mandarin orange, C. reticulata), is a small tree in the Rutaceae (citrus family) that originated in southern China, where it has been cultivated for millennia. Oranges are now grown commercially worldwide in tropical, semi-tropical, and some warm temperate regions, and have become the most widely planted fruit tree in the world. Oranges are the world’s most popular fruit, and are eaten fresh and used for juice.
The orange tree is small, spiny tree, typically growing to 7.5 m (25 ft), but occasionally reaching heights up to 15 m (50 ft), generally with a compact crown. Leaves are leathery and evergreen, and range from elliptical to oblong to oval, 6.5-15 cm long and 2.5-9.5 cm wide, often with narrow wings on the petioles (leaf stems). The fragrant white flowers, produced singly or in cluster of up to 6, are around 5 cm wide, with 5 petals and 20 to 25 yellow stamens. The fruit, which may be globose to oval, is typically 6.5 to 9.5 cm wide, and ripens to orange or yellow. The fruit skin (rind or peel) contains numerous small oil glands. The flesh or pulp of the fruit is typically juicy and sweet, divided into 10 to 14 segments (although there are seedless varieties) and ranges in color from yellow to orange to red. Hundreds of cultivars have been developed, which are grouped into 4 major categories by geography (Mediterranean oranges, Spanish oranges) and characteristics (blood oranges, navel oranges).
Oranges, which are high in vitamins A and C and potassium, are eaten fresh or processed into juice, which can be consumed directly or further processed into concentrate, both used in numerous soda and cocktail drinks, punches, orangeades, and liqueurs (although many orange liqueurs are made from sour, rather than sweet, oranges, or from a combination). Orange fruits and peels are used in numerous desserts, jams and marmalades, candied peels, as well as cookies, cakes, and candies. Oil derived from orange peels, as well as flowers, leaves, and twigs is used as an essential oil in perfumes; orange seed oil may also be used in cooking or as a component in plastics. Orange blossoms produce more nectar than any other source in the U.S., and are important for honey production (more than 25% of honey produced in California is from orange groves).
The total global commercial production of oranges in 2010 was 69.4 million metric tons (mt), harvested from 4.1 million hectares. Brazil, which is the leading producer (with 19.1 million mt), produced more than twice as much as the second-ranked U.S. (with 7.5 million mt). Other leading producers included India, China, Mexico, and Spain.
Orange trees and fruits are susceptible to various pests and pathogens, including the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata), numerous fungal leaf spots, blights, and root rots (including Cercospora, Colletotrichum Fusarium, Phytophthora, and many others) and viruses that can significantly reduce yields.
(Bailey et al. 1976, FAOSTAT 2012, Flora of China 2012, Morton 1987, van Wyk 2005.)
Regularity: Regularly occurring
Life History and Behavior
Evolution and Systematics
The internal structure of a leaf increases gas exchange by providing a much greater surface area than is found externally.
"A tree…has a lot of very obvious leaf surface. In fact, gas exchange between the photosynthetic cells of leaves and the atmosphere occurs at the walls of tortuous internal passages, so the functional surface area is from ten to more than thirty times greater than meets the eye. For an orange tree with two thousand leaves, the outer surface was measured as 200 square meters; but the internal surface for gas exchange is thirty times greater--6,000 square meters or 0.6 hectares (1.5 acres)." (Vogel 2003: 47)
Learn more about this functional adaptation.
- Steven Vogel. 2003. Comparative Biomechanics: Life's Physical World. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 580 p.
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Fruit contains citric acid, pectin, flavones, essential oils and vitamin C.
Barcode data: Citrus sinensis
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Citrus sinensis
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
National NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable
NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked
Reasons: Widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, escaping and becoming naturalized. Bermuda, throughout West Indies, and subtropical United States from Florida to California, south to Argentina. Found throughout Puerto Rico but chiefly in coffee plantations in the lower Cordillera and moist limestone regions.
Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems
Leaf: In an aromatic infusion to soothe grippe. Fruit: Infusion of the mesocarp is used as a cholagogue, and drunk on an empty stomach to relieve stomach pain. Flower: Infusion used as a sedative.
Uses: FOOD, Fruit, Food oil, Beverage (non-alcoholic)
The orange (specifically, the sweet orange) is the fruit of the citrus species Citrus × sinensis in the family Rutaceae. The fruit of the Citrus sinensis is considered a sweet orange, whereas the fruit of the Citrus aurantium is considered a bitter orange. The orange is a hybrid, possibly between pomelo (Citrus maxima) and mandarin (Citrus reticulata), which has been cultivated since ancient times.
As of 1987[update], orange trees were found to be the most cultivated fruit tree in the world. Orange trees are widely grown in tropical and subtropical climates for their sweet fruit. The fruit of the orange tree can be eaten fresh, or processed for its juice or fragrant peel. As of 2012[update], sweet oranges accounted for approximately 70% of citrus production. In 2010, 68.3 million metric tons of oranges were grown worldwide, production being particularly prevalent in Brazil and the U.S. states of Florida and California.
- 1 Botanical information and terminology
- 2 Etymology
- 3 Varieties
- 4 Attributes
- 5 History
- 6 Cultivation
- 7 Production
- 8 Juice and other products
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Botanical information and terminology
All citrus trees belong to the single genus Citrus and remain almost entirely interfertile. This means that there is only one superspecies that includes grapefruits, lemons, limes, oranges, and various other types and hybrids. As the interfertility of oranges and other citrus has produced numerous hybrids, bud unions, and cultivars, their taxonomy is fairly controversial, confusing or inconsistent. The fruit of any citrus tree is considered a hesperidium (a kind of modified berry) because it has numerous seeds, is fleshy and soft, derives from a single ovary and is covered by a rind originated by a rugged thickening of the ovary wall.
Different names have been given to the many varieties of the genus. Orange applies primarily to the sweet orange – Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck. The orange tree is an evergreen, flowering tree, with an average height of 9 to 10 m (30 to 33 ft), although some very old specimens can reach 15 m (49 ft). Its oval leaves, alternately arranged, are 4 to 10 cm (1.6 to 3.9 in) long and have crenulate margins. Although the sweet orange presents different sizes and shapes varying from spherical to oblong, it generally has ten segments (carpels) inside, and contains up to six seeds (or pips) and a porous white tissue – called pith or, more properly, mesocarp or albedo—lines its rind. When unripe, the fruit is green. The grainy irregular rind of the ripe fruit can range from bright orange to yellow-orange, but frequently retains green patches or, under warm climate conditions, remains entirely green. Like all other citrus fruits, the sweet orange is non-climacteric. The Citrus sinensis is subdivided into four classes with distinct characteristics: common oranges, blood or pigmented oranges, navel oranges, and acidless oranges.
Other citrus species also known as oranges are:
- Bitter orange (Citrus aurantium), also known as Seville orange, sour orange (especially when used as rootstock for a sweet orange tree), bigarade orange and marmalade orange
- Bergamot orange (Citrus bergamia Risso), grown mainly in Italy for its peel, producing a primary essence for perfumes, also used to flavor Earl Grey tea
- Trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata), sometimes included in the genus (classified as Citrus trifoliata). It often serves as a rootstock for sweet orange trees, especially as a hybrid with other Citrus cultivars. The trifoliate orange is a thorny shrub or small tree grown mostly as an ornamental plant or to set up hedges. It bears a downy fruit similar to a small citrus, used to make marmalade. It is native to northern China and Korea, and is also known as "Chinese bitter orange" or "hardy orange" because it can withstand subfreezing temperatures
- Mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata) is an original species of citrus, and is the progenitor of the common orange. It has an enormous number of cultivars, most notably the satsuma (Citrus unshiu), the tangerine (Citrus tangerina) and the clementine (Citrus clementina). In some cultivars, the mandarin is very similar to the sweet orange, making it difficult to distinguish between the two. The mandarin, however, is generally smaller and oblate, easier to peel, and less acidic
Orange trees generally are grafted. The bottom of the tree, including the roots and trunk, is called rootstock, while the fruit-bearing top has two different names: budwood (when referring to the process of grafting) and scion (when mentioning the variety of orange).
The word orange derives from the Sanskrit word for "orange tree" (नारङ्ग nāraṅga), which is probably of Dravidian origin. The Sanskrit word reached European languages through Persian نارنگ (nārang) and its Arabic derivative نارنج (nāranj).
The word entered Late Middle English in the fourteenth century via Old French orenge (in the phrase pomme d'orenge). The French word, in turn, comes from Old Provençal auranja, based on Arabic nāranj. In several languages, the initial n present in earlier forms of the word dropped off because it may have been mistaken as part of an indefinite article ending in an n sound—in French, for example, une norenge may have been heard as une orenge. This linguistic change is called juncture loss. The color was named after the fruit, and the first recorded use of orange as a color name in English was in 1512.
As Portuguese merchants were presumably the first to introduce the sweet orange in Europe, in several modern Indo-European languages the fruit has been named after them. Some examples are Albanian portokall, Bulgarian портокал (portokal), Greek πορτοκάλι (portokali), Macedonian portokal, Persian پرتقال (porteghal), and Romanian portocală. Related names can be found in other languages, such as Arabic البرتقال (bourtouqal), Georgian ფორთოხალი (p'ort'oxali), Turkish portakal and Amharic birtukan. Also, in southern Italian dialects (eg Neapolitan), an orange is portogallo or purtuallo, literally "(the) Portuguese (one)", in contrast to standard Italian arancia.
In other Indo-European languages, the words for orange allude to the eastern origin of the fruit and can be translated literally as "apple from China". Some examples are Low German Apfelsine, Dutch appelsien and sinaasappel, Swedish apelsin, and Norwegian appelsin. A similar case is Puerto Rican Spanish china.
The Valencia orange is a late-season fruit, and therefore a popular variety when navel oranges are out of season. This is why an anthropomorphic orange was chosen as the mascot for the 1982 FIFA World Cup, held in Spain. The mascot was named Naranjito ("little orange") and wore the colors of the Spanish national football team.
Hart's Tardiff Valencia
Thomas Rivers, an English nurseryman, imported this variety from the Azores Islands and catalogued it in 1865 under the name Excelsior. Around 1870, he provided trees to S. B. Parsons, a Long Island nurseryman, who in turn sold them to E. H. Hart of Federal Point, Florida.
This cultivar was discovered by A. G. Hamlin near Glenwood, Florida, in 1879. The fruit is small, smooth, not highly colored, seedless, and juicy, with a pale yellow colored juice, especially in fruits that come from lemon rootstock. The tree is high-yielding and cold-tolerant and it produces good quality fruit, which is harvested from October to December. It thrives in humid subtropical climates. In cooler, more arid areas, the trees produce edible fruit, but too small for commercial use.
Trees from groves in hammocks or areas covered with pine forest are budded on sour orange trees, a method that gives a high solids content. On sand, they are grafted on rough lemon rootstock. The Hamlin orange is one of the most popular juice oranges in Florida and replaces the Parson Brown variety as the principal early-season juice orange. This cultivar is now[needs update] the leading early orange in Florida and, possibly, in the rest of the world.
Other varieties of common oranges
- Belladonna: grown in Italy
- Berna: grown mainly in Spain
- Biondo Comune ("ordinary blond"): widely grown in the Mediterranean basin, especially in North Africa, Egypt, Greece (where it is called "koines"), Italy (where it is also known as "Liscio"), and Spain; it also is called "Beledi" and "Nostrale"; in Italy, this variety ripens in December, earlier than the competing Tarocco variety
- Biondo Riccio: grown in Italy
- Cadanera: a seedless orange of excellent flavor grown in Algeria, Morocco, and Spain; it begins to ripen in November and is known by a wide variety of trade names, such as Cadena Fina, Cadena sin Jueso, Precoce de Valence ("early from Valencia"), Precoce des Canaries, and Valence san Pepins ("seedless Valencia"); it was first grown in Spain in 1870
- Calabrese or Calabrese Ovale: grown in Italy
- Carvalhal: grown in Portugal
- Castellana: grown in Spain
- Cherry Orange: grown in southern China and Japan
- Clanor: grown in South Africa
- Dom João: grown in Portugal
- Fukuhara: grown in Japan
- Gardner: grown in Florida, this mid-season orange ripens around the beginning of February, approximately the same time as the Midsweet variety; Gardner is about as hardy as Sunstar and Midsweet
- Homosassa: grown in Florida
- Jaffa orange: grown in the Middle East, also known as "Shamouti"
- Jincheng: the most popular orange in China
- Joppa: grown in South Africa and Texas
- Khettmali: grown in Israel and Lebanon
- Kona: a type of Valencia orange introduced in Hawaii in 1792 by Captain George Vancouver; for many decades in the nineteenth century, these oranges were the leading export from the Kona district on the Big Island of Hawaii; in Kailua-Kona, some of the original stock still bears fruit
- Lue Gim Gong: grown in Florida, is an early scion developed by Lue Gim Gong, a Chinese immigrant known as the "Citrus Genius"; in 1888, Lue cross-pollinated two orange varieties – the Hart's late Valencia and the Mediterranean Sweet – and obtained a fruit both sweet and frost-tolerant; this variety was propagated at the Glen St. Mary Nursery, which in 1911 received the Silver Wilder Medal by the American Pomological Society; originally considered a hybrid, the Lue Gim Gong orange was later found to be a nucellar seedling of the Valencia type, which is properly called Lue Gim Gong; since 2006, the Lue Gim Gong variety is grown in Florida, although sold under the general name Valencia
- Macetera: grown in Spain, it is known for its unique flavor
- Malta: grown in Pakistan
- Maltaise Blonde: grown in north Africa
- Maltaise Ovale: grown in South Africa and in California under the names of Garey's or California Mediterranean Sweet
- Marrs: grown in Texas, California and Iran, it is relatively low in acid
- Midsweet: grown in Florida, it is a newer scion similar to the Hamlin and Pineapple varieties, it is hardier than Pineapple and ripens later; the fruit production and quality are similar to those of the Hamlin, but the juice has a deeper color
- Moro Tarocco: grown in Italy, it is oval, resembles a tangelo, and has a distinctive caramel-colored endocarp; this color is the result of a pigment called anthocarpium, not usually found in citruses, but common in red fruits and flowers; the original mutation occurred in Sicily in the seventeenth century
- Mosambi: grown in India and Pakistan, it is so low in acid and insipid that it might be classified as acidless
- Narinja: grown in Andhra, South India
- Parson Brown: grown in Florida, Mexico, and Turkey, it once was a widely-grown Florida juice orange, its popularity has declined since new varieties with more juice, better yield, and higher acid and sugar content have been developed; it originated as a chance seedling in Florida in 1865; its fruits are round, medium large, have a thick, pebbly peel and contain 10 to 30 seeds; it still is grown because it is the earliest maturing fruit in the United States, usually maturing in early September in the Valley district of Texas, and from early October to January in Florida; its peel and juice color are poor, as is the quality of its juice
- Pera: grown in Brazil, it is very popular in the Brazilian citrus industry and yielded 7.5 million metric tons in 2005
- Pera Coroa: grown in Brazil
- Pera Natal: grown in Brazil
- Pera Rio: grown in Brazil
- Pineapple: grown in North and South America and India
- Premier: grown in South Africa
- Rhode Red: is a mutation of the Valencia orange, but the color of its flesh is more intense; it has more juice, and less acidity and vitamin C than the Valencia; it was discovered by Paul Rhode in 1955 in a grove near Sebring, Florida
- Roble: it was first shipped from Spain in 1851 by Joseph Roble to his homestead in what is now Roble's Park in Tampa, Florida; it is known for its high sugar content
- Queen: grown in South Africa
- Salustiana: grown in North Africa
- Sathgudi: grown in Tamil Nadu, South India
- Seleta, Selecta: grown in Australia and Brazil, it is high in acid
- Shamouti Masry: grown in Egypt; it is a richer variety of Shamouti
- Sunstar: grown in Florida, this newer cultivar ripens in mid-season (December to March) and it is more resistant to cold and fruit-drop than the competing Pineapple variety; the color of its juice is darker than that of the competing Hamlin
- Tomango: grown in South Africa
- Verna: grown in Algeria, Mexico, Morocco, and Spain
- Vicieda: grown in Algeria, Morocco, and Spain
- Westin: grown in Brazil
Navel oranges are characterized by the growth of a second fruit at the apex, which protrudes slightly and resembles a human navel. They are primarily grown for human consumption for various reasons: their thicker skin makes them easy to peel,[clarification needed] they are less juicy and their bitterness – a result of the high concentrations of limonin and other limonoids – renders them less suitable for juice. Their widespread distribution and long growing season have made navel oranges very popular. In the United States, they are available from November to April, with peak supplies in January, February, and March.
According to a 1917 study by Palemon Dorsett, Archibald Dixon Shamel and Wilson Popenoe of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), a single mutation in a Selecta orange tree planted on the grounds of a monastery near Bahia, Brazil, probably yielded the first navel orange between 1810 and 1820. Nevertheless, a researcher at the University of California, Riverside, has suggested that the parent variety was more likely the Portuguese navel orange (Umbigo), described by Antoine Risso and Pierre Antoine Poiteau in their book Histoire naturelle des orangers ("Natural History of Orange Trees", 1818–1822). The mutation caused the orange to develop a second fruit at its base, opposite the stem, as a conjoined twin in a set of smaller segments embedded within the peel of the primary orange. Navel oranges were introduced in Australia in 1824 and in Florida in 1835. In 1870, twelve cuttings of the original tree were transplanted to Riverside, California, where the fruit became known as "Washington". This cultivar was very successful, and rapidly spread to other countries. Because the mutation left the fruit seedless and, therefore, sterile, the only method to cultivate navel oranges was to graft cuttings onto other varieties of citrus trees. The California Citrus State Historic Park and the Orcutt Ranch Horticulture Center preserve the history of navel oranges in Riverside.
Today, navel oranges continue to be propagated through cutting and grafting. This does not allow for the usual selective breeding methodologies, and so all navel oranges can be considered fruits from that single, nearly two-hundred-year-old tree: they have exactly the same genetic make-up as the original tree and are, therefore, clones. This case is similar to that of the common yellow seedless banana, the Cavendish, or that of the Granny Smith apple. On rare occasions, however, further mutations can lead to new varieties.
Cara cara oranges (also called "red navel") are a type of navel orange grown mainly in Venezuela, South Africa and in California's San Joaquin Valley. They are sweet and comparatively low in acid, with a bright orange rind similar to that of other navels, but their flesh is distinctively pinkish red. It is believed that they have originated as a cross between the Washington navel and the Brazilian Bahia navel, and they were discovered at the Hacienda Cara Cara in Valencia, Venezuela, in 1976.
- Bahianinha or Bahia
- Dream Navel
- Late Navel
- Washington or California Navel
Blood oranges are a natural mutation of C. sinensis, although today the majority of them are hybrids. High concentrations of anthocyanin give the rind, flesh, and juice of the fruit their characteristic dark red color. Blood oranges were first discovered and cultivated in Sicily in the fifteenth century. Since then they have spread worldwide, but are grown especially in Spain and Italy—under the names of sanguina and sanguinella, respectively.
The blood orange, with its distinct color and flavor, is generally considered the most delicious juice orange, and has found a niche as an ingredient variation in traditional Seville marmalade.
Other varieties of blood oranges
- Maltese: a small and highly colored variety, generally thought to have originated in Italy as a mutation and cultivated there for centuries. It also is grown extensively in southern Spain and Malta. It is used in sorbets and other desserts due to its rich burgundy color.
- Moro: originally from Sicily, it is common throughout Italy. This medium-sized fruit has a relatively long harvest, which lasts from December to April.
- Sanguinelli: a mutant of the Doble Fina, discovered in 1929 in Almenara, in the Castellón province of Spain. It is cultivated in Sicily.
- Scarlet navel: a variety with the same mutation as the navel orange.
- Tarocco: a relatively new variety developed in Italy. It begins to ripen in late January.
Acidless oranges are an early-season fruit with very low levels of acid. They also are called "sweet" oranges in the United States, with similar names in other countries: douce in France, sucrena in Spain, dolce or maltese in Italy, meski in North Africa and the Near East (where they are especially popular), şeker portakal ("sugar orange") in Turkey, succari in Egypt, and lima in Brazil.
The lack of acid, which protects orange juice against spoilage in other groups, renders them generally unfit for processing as juice, so they are primarily eaten. They remain profitable in areas of local consumption, but rapid spoilage renders them unsuitable for export to major population centres of Europe, Asia, or the United States.
Xã Đoài orange
The Xã Đoài orange (Cam xã Đoài, citrus sinensis Xa Doai) is a cultivar of orange of Spanish origin (valencia orange?) cultivated in Vietnam at the former Catholic settlement at xã Đoài, modern Nghi Diên village in Nghi Lộc, Nghệ An. Xã Đoài is the name of the village, and the former Grand Séminaire de Xa-Doai, in the old nôm script.
Nutritional value and phytochemicals
|Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)|
|Energy||197 kJ (47 kcal)|
|Dietary fiber||2.4 g|
|Vitamin A equiv.|
|Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.|
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
As with other citrus fruits, orange pulp is an excellent source of vitamin C, providing 64% of the Daily Value in a 100 g serving (right table). Numerous other essential nutrients are present in low amounts (right table).
Oranges contain diverse phytochemicals, including carotenoids (beta-carotene, lutein and beta-cryptoxanthin), flavonoids (e.g., naringenin) and numerous volatile organic compounds producing orange aroma, including aldehydes, esters, terpenes, alcohols, and ketones.
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has established the following grades for Florida oranges, which primarily apply to oranges sold as fresh fruit: US Fancy, US No. 1 Bright, US No. 1, US No. 1 Golden, US No. 1 Bronze, US No. 1 Russet, US No. 2 Bright, US No. 2, US No. 2 Russet, and US No. 3. The general characteristics graded are color (both hue and uniformity), firmness, maturity, varietal characteristics, texture, and shape. Fancy, the highest grade, requires the highest grade of color and an absence of blemishes, while the terms Bright, Golden, Bronze, and Russet concern solely discoloration.
Grade numbers are determined by the amount of unsightly blemishes on the skin and firmness of the fruit that do not affect consumer safety. The USDA separates blemishes into three categories:
- General blemishes: ammoniation, buckskin, caked melanose, creasing, decay, scab, split navels, sprayburn, undeveloped segments, unhealed segments, and wormy fruit
- Injuries to fruit: bruises, green spots, oil spots, rough, wide, or protruding navels, scale, scars, skin breakdown, and thorn scratches
- Damage caused by dirt or other foreign material, disease, dryness, or mushy condition, hail, insects, riciness or woodiness, and sunburn.
The USDA uses a separate grading system for oranges used for juice because appearance and texture are irrelevant in this case. There are only two grades: US Grade AA Juice and US Grade A Juice, which are given to the oranges before processing. Juice grades are determined by three factors:
- The juiciness of the orange
- The amount of solids in the juice (at least 10% solids are required for the AA grade)
- The proportion of anhydric citric acid in fruit solids
The orange is unknown in the wild state; is assumed to have originated in southern China, northeastern India, and perhaps southeastern Asia, and that they were first cultivated in China around 2500 BC.
In Europe, citrus fruits—among them the bitter orange, introduced to Italy by the crusaders in the 11th century—were grown widely in the south for medicinal purposes, but the sweet orange was unknown until the late 15th century or the beginnings of the 16th century, when Italian and Portuguese merchants brought orange trees into the Mediterranean area. Shortly afterward, the sweet orange quickly was adopted as an edible fruit. It also was considered a luxury item and wealthy people grew oranges in private conservatories, called orangeries. By 1646, the sweet orange was well known throughout Europe.
Spanish travelers introduced the sweet orange into the American continent. On his second voyage in 1493, Christopher Columbus may have planted the fruit in Hispaniola. Subsequent expeditions in the mid-1500s brought sweet oranges to South America and Mexico, and to Florida in 1565, when Pedro Menéndez de Avilés founded St Augustine. Spanish missionaries brought orange trees to Arizona between 1707 and 1710, while the Franciscans did the same in San Diego, California, in 1769. An orchard was planted at the San Gabriel Mission around 1804 and a commercial orchard was established in 1841 near present-day Los Angeles. In Louisiana, oranges were probably introduced by French explorers.
Archibald Menzies, the botanist and naturalist on the Vancouver Expedition, collected orange seeds in South Africa, raised the seedlings onboard and gave them to several Hawaiian chiefs in 1792. Eventually, the sweet orange was grown in wide areas of the Hawaiian Islands, but its cultivation stopped after the arrival of the Mediterranean fruit fly in the early 1900s.
Around 1872, Florida farmers obtained seeds from New Orleans. Many orange groves were established by grafting the sweet orange on to sour orange rootstocks.
Like most citrus plants, oranges do well under moderate temperatures—between 15.5 and 29 °C (59.9 and 84.2 °F)—and require considerable amounts of sunshine and water. It has been suggested that the use of water resources by the citrus industry in the Middle East is a contributing factor to the desiccation of the region.  Another significant element in the full development of the fruit is the temperature variation between summer and winter and, between day and night. In cooler climates, oranges can be grown indoors.
As oranges are sensitive to frost, there are different methods to prevent frost damage to crops and trees when subfreezing temperatures are expected. A common process is to spray the trees with water so as to cover them with a thin layer of ice that will stay just at the freezing point, insulating them even if air temperatures drop far lower. This is because water continues to lose heat as long as the environment is colder than it is, and so the water turning to ice in the environment cannot damage the trees. This practice, however, offers protection only for a very short time. Another procedure is burning fuel oil in smudge pots put between the trees. These devices burn with a great deal of particulate emission, so condensation of water vapour on the particulate soot prevents condensation on plants and raises the air temperature very slightly. Smudge pots were developed for the first time after a disastrous freeze in Southern California in January 1913 destroyed a whole crop.
It is possible to grow orange trees directly from seeds, but they may be infertile or produce fruit that may be different from its parent. For the seed of a commercial orange to grow, it must be kept moist at all times. One approach is placing the seeds between two sheets of damp paper towel until they germinate and then planting them, although many cultivators just set the seeds straight into the soil.
Commercially grown orange trees are propagated asexually by grafting a mature cultivar onto a suitable seedling rootstock to ensure the same yield, identical fruit characteristics, and resistance to diseases throughout the years. Propagation involves two stages: first, a rootstock is grown from seed. Then, when it is approximately one year old, the leafy top is cut off and a bud taken from a specific scion variety, is grafted into its bark. The scion is what determines the variety of orange, while the rootstock makes the tree resistant to pests and diseases and adaptable to specific soil and climatic conditions. Thus, rootstocks influence the rate of growth and have an effect on fruit yield and quality.
Rootstocks must be compatible with the variety inserted into them because otherwise, the tree may decline, be less productive, or die.
Among the several advantages to grafting are that trees mature uniformly and begin to bear fruit earlier than those reproduced by seeds (3 to 4 years in contrast with 6 to 7 years), and that it makes it possible to combine the best attributes of a scion with those of a rootstock.
|This section requires expansion. (November 2012)|
Canopy-shaking mechanical harvesters are being used increasingly in Florida to harvest oranges. Current canopy shaker machines use a series of six-to-seven-foot long tines to shake the tree canopy at a relatively constant stroke and frequency.
Normally, oranges are picked once they are pale orange.
Oranges must be mature when harvested. In the United States, laws forbid harvesting immature fruit for human consumption in Texas, Arizona, California and Florida. Ripe oranges, however, often have some green or yellow-green color in the skin. Ethylene gas is used to turn green skin to orange. This process is known as "degreening", also called "gassing", "sweating", or "curing". Oranges are non-climacteric fruits and cannot post-harvest ripen internally in response to ethylene gas, though they will de-green externally.
Commercially, oranges can be stored by refrigeration in controlled-atmosphere chambers for up to 12 weeks after harvest. Storage life ultimately depends on cultivar, maturity, pre-harvest conditions, and handling. In stores and markets, however, oranges should be displayed on non-refrigerated shelves.
Pests and diseases
Cottony cushion scale
The first major pest that attacked orange trees in the United States was the cottony cushion scale (Icerya purchasi), imported from Australia to California in 1868. Within 20 years, it wiped out the citrus orchards around Los Angeles, and limited orange growth throughout California. In 1888, the USDA sent Alfred Koebele to Australia to study this scale insect in its native habitat. He brought back with him specimens of Novius cardinalis, an Australian ladybird beetle, and within a decade the pest was controlled.
Citrus greening disease
The citrus greening disease, caused by the bacterium Liberobacter asiaticum, has been the most serious threat to orange production since 2010. It is characterized by streaks of different shades on the leaves, and deformed, poorly-colored, unsavory fruit. In areas where the disease is endemic, citrus trees live for only five to eight years and never bear fruit suitable for consumption. In the western hemisphere, the disease was discovered in Florida in 1998, where it has attacked nearly all the trees ever since. It was reported in Brazil by Fundecitrus Brasil in 2004. As from 2009, 0.87% of the trees in Brazil's main orange growing areas (São Paulo and Minas Gerais) showed symptoms of greening, an increase of 49% over 2008.
The disease is spread primarily by two species of psyllid insects. One of them is the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama), an efficient vector of the Liberobacter asiaticum. Generalist predators such as the ladybird beetles Curinus coeruleus, Olla v-nigrum, Harmonia axyridis, and Cycloneda sanguinea, and the lacewings Ceraeochrysa spp. and Chrysoperla spp. make significant contribution to the mortality of the Asian citrus psyllid, which results in 80–100% reduction in psyllid populations. In contrast, parasitism by Tamarixia radiata, a species-specific parasitoid of the Asian citrus psyllid, is variable and generally low in southwest Florida: in 2006, it amounted to a reduction of less than 12% from May to September and 50% in November.
In 2007, foliar applications of insecticides reduced psyllid populations for a short time, but also suppressed the populations of predatory ladybird beetles. Soil application of aldicarb provided limited control of Asian citrus psyllid, while drenches of imidacloprid to young trees were effective for two months or more.
Management of citrus greening disease is difficult and requires an integrated approach that includes use of clean stock, elimination of inoculum via voluntary and regulatory means, use of pesticides to control psyllid vectors in the citrus crop, and biological control of psyllid vectors in non-crop reservoirs. Citrus greening disease is not under completely successful management.
Greasy spot, a fungal disease caused by the Mycosphaerella citri, produces leaf spots and premature defoliation, thus reducing the tree's vigour and yield. Ascospores of M. citri are generated in pseudothecia in decomposing fallen leaves. Once mature, ascospores are ejected and subsequently dispersed by air currents.
Brazil is the world's leading orange producer, with an output almost as high as that of the next three countries combined (the United States, India, and China). Orange groves are located mainly in the state of São Paulo, in the southeastern region of Brazil, and account for approximately 80% of the national production. As almost 99% of the fruit is processed for export, 53% of total global frozen concentrated orange juice production comes from this area and the western part of the state of Minas Gerais. In Brazil, the four predominant orange varieties used for obtaining juice are Hamlin, Pera Rio, Natal, and Valencia.
The United States is the second largest producer. Groves are located especially in Florida, California, Texas, and Arizona. The majority of California's crop is sold as fresh fruit, whereas Florida's oranges are destined to juice products. Mid-south Florida produces about half as many oranges as Brazil, but the bulk of its orange juice is not exported. The Indian River area of Florida is known for the high quality of its juice, which often is sold fresh in the United States and frequently blended with juice produced in other regions because Indian River trees yield very sweet oranges, but in relatively small quantities.
Production of orange juice between the São Paulo and mid-south Florida areas makes up roughly 85% of the world market. Brazil exports 99% of its production, while 90% of Florida's production is consumed in the United States.
Orange juice is traded internationally in the form of frozen, concentrated orange juice to reduce the volume used so that storage and transportation costs are lower.
The European Union is the third largest producer of oranges worldwide.
|Top ten countries|
with the largest production of orange in 2012
Juice and other products
Oranges, whose flavor may vary from sweet to sour, are commonly peeled and eaten fresh or squeezed for juice. The thick bitter rind is usually discarded, but can be processed into animal feed by desiccation, using pressure and heat. It also is used in certain recipes as a food flavoring or garnish. The outermost layer of the rind can be thinly grated with a zester to produce orange zest. Zest is popular in cooking because it contains oils and has a strong flavor similar to that of the orange pulp. The white part of the rind, including the pith, is a source of pectin and has nearly the same amount of vitamin C as the flesh and other nutrients.
Although not as juicy or tasty as the flesh, orange peel is edible and has significant contents of vitamin C, dietary fiber, total polyphenols, carotenoids, limonene and dietary minerals, such as potassium and magnesium.
Products made from oranges
- Orange juice is obtained by squeezing the fruit on a special tool (a juicer or squeezer) and collecting the juice in a tray underneath. This can be made at home or, on a much larger scale, industrially. Brazil is the largest producer of orange juice in the world, followed by the United States, where it is one of the commodities traded on the New York Board of Trade.
- Frozen orange juice concentrate is made from freshly squeezed and filtered orange juice.
- Sweet orange oil is a by-product of the juice industry produced by pressing the peel. It is used for flavoring food and drinks and also in the perfume industry and aromatherapy for its fragrance. Sweet orange oil consists of approximately 90% D-limonene, a solvent used in various household chemicals, such as wood conditioners for furniture and—along with other citrus oils—detergents and hand cleansers. It is an efficient cleaning agent with a pleasant smell, promoted for being environmentally friendly and therefore, preferable to petrochemicals. D-limonene is, however, classified from slightly toxic to humans, to very toxic to marine life in different countries.
Limonene is considered a natural chemopreventive agent in humans, and there is no evidence for its carcinogenicity or genotoxicity, as once believed. The Carcinogenic Potency Project estimates that D-limonene may affect human cancer on a level roughly equivalent to that for caffeic acid via dietary coffee intake, whereas the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies it under Class 3, which means it is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans.
Orange blossoms are used in several different ways, as are fruit peels and the leaves and wood of the tree.
- The orange blossom, which is the state flower of Florida, is highly fragrant and traditionally associated with good fortune. It has long been popular in bridal bouquets and head wreaths.
- Orange blossom essence is an important component in the making of perfume.
- Orange blossom petals can also be made into a delicately citrus-scented version of rosewater, known as "orange blossom water" or "orange flower water". It is a common ingredient in French and Middle Eastern cuisines, especially in desserts and baked goods. In some Middle Eastern countries, drops of orange flower water are added to disguise the unpleasant taste of hard water drawn from wells or stored in qullahs (traditional Egyptian water pitchers made of porous clay). In the United States, orange flower water is used to make orange blossom scones and marshmallows.
- In Spain, fallen blossoms are dried and used to make tea.
- Orange blossom honey (or citrus honey) is obtained by putting beehives in the citrus groves while trees bloom. By this method, bees also pollinate seeded citrus varieties. This type of honey has an orangey taste and is highly prized.
- Marmalade usually is made with Seville oranges. All parts of the fruit are used: the pith and pips (separated and placed in a muslin bag) are boiled in a mixture of juice, slivered peel, sliced-up flesh, sugar, and water to extract their pectin, which helps the conserve to set.
- Orange peel is used by gardeners as a slug repellent.
- Orange leaves can be boiled to make tea.
- Orangewood sticks are used as cuticle pushers in manicures and pedicures, and as spudgers for manipulating slender electronic wires.
- Orangewood is used in the same way as mesquite, oak, and hickory for seasoning grilled meat.
- Cam sành (Green orange or Longan. Citrus reticulata × maxima)
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- Study on induction of tetraploid citrus plants derived From local diploid cultivars
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The blood orange is a variety of orange (Citrus sinensis) with crimson, blood-colored flesh. The fruit is smaller than an average orange; its skin is usually pitted, but can be smooth. The distinctive dark flesh color is due to the presence of anthocyanins, a family of pigments common to many flowers and fruit, but uncommon in citrus fruits. Sometimes there is dark coloring on the exterior of the rind as well, depending on the variety of blood orange. The degree of coloration depends on light, temperature and variety.
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The three most common types of blood oranges are: the Tarocco (native to Italy), the Sanguinello (native to Spain), and the Moro, the newest variety of the three. The other less common types include Khanpur, Washington Sanguine, Ruby Blood, Sanguina Doble Fina, Delfino, Red Valencia, Burris blood Valencia orange, Vaccaro blood orange, Sanguine grosse ronde, Entre Fina blood orange and Sanguinello a pignu. Vainiglia Sanguigno and Cara Cara can be considered in the same category when these are all grouped together as pigmented oranges. Cara Cara or Pink Navel and the Vainiglia Sanguigno's pigmentations are based on lycopene instead of anthocyanins of the true blood oranges.
The Moro, a recent addition to the blood orange family, is the most colorful of the three types, with a deep purple flesh and reddish orange rind. The flavor is stronger and the aroma is more intense than a normal orange. This fruit has a distinct, sweet flavour with a hint of raspberry particular to blood oranges. The Moro variety is believed to have originated at the beginning of the 19th century in the citrus-growing area around Lentini (in the Province of Siracusa in Sicily) as a bud mutation of the "Sanguigno". Moro are "full-blood" oranges, meaning that the flesh ranges from orange-veined with ruby coloration, to vermilion, to vivid crimson, and nearly to black. The thick orange-colored peel has a medium fine grain with spots or red wine veins.
The Tarocco is a medium-sized fruit and is perhaps the sweetest and most flavorful of the three types. The most popular table orange in Italy, the Tarocco is thought to have derived from a mutation of the "Sanguinello". It is referred to as "half-blood", because the flesh is not accentuated in red pigmentation as much as with the Moro and Sanguinello varieties. It has thin orange skin, slightly blushed in red tones. The Tarocco is one of the world's most popular oranges because of its sweetness (Brix to acid ratio is generally above 12.0) and juiciness. It has the highest Vitamin C content of any orange variety grown in the world, mainly on account of the fertile soil surrounding Mount Etna, and it is easy to peel. The Tarocco orange is seedless, and it contains anthocyanins, as do other blood oranges. The name Tarocco is thought to be derived from an exclamation of wonder expressed by the farmer who was shown this fruit by its discoverer. The University of California, Riverside Citrus Variety Collection has delineated three subcultivars of Tarocco: The Bream Tarocco which was originally donated by Robert Bream of Lindsay, California, is of medium to large fruit with few to no seeds; Tarocco #7 or CRC 3596 Tarocco which is one of the most delicious blood orange varieties in the entire Citrus Variety Collection but the rind of this blood orange has very little to no coloration at all, vigorous tree but only moderately productive; and the Thermal Tarocco which was donated by A. Newcomb of Thermal Plaza Nursery in Thermal, California.
The Sanguinello (saŋgwɪˈnɛllo), also called Sanguinelli in the US (the plural form of its name in Italian), discovered in Spain in 1929, has a reddish skin, few seeds, and a sweet and tender flesh. Sanguinello, the Sicilian late "full-blood" orange, is close in characteristics to the Moro. It matures in February, but can remain on trees unharvested until April. Fruit can last until the end of May. The peel is compact, and clear yellow with a red tinge. The flesh is orange with multiple blood-colored streaks.
History and background
Citrus fruits have been cultivated in Sicily for some time and cultivation has been documented since the time of Moorish rule. While Arabs are credited with originally planting lemons and bitter oranges in Sicily, the Genovese and Portuguese crusaders introduced the sweet variety, Portogallo, in the 15th century.
As the fruit's health-benefiting properties became known, Sicily began shipping oranges around the world. Today, Sicilian citrus is found in virtually every country that permits imports. Blood oranges cultivated in the United States are in season from December to March (Texas), and from November to May (California). While the tree will grow and bear fruit in Florida, the "Mediterranean" temperature variation between day and night seems to be necessary to develop the distinctive red color – blood oranges grown in Florida often have little to no red pigmentation.
Blood oranges' red pigment, anthocyanin, is an antioxidant. Blood oranges may also diminish the risk of heart disease, some types of cancer, and LDL cholesterol accumulation. Additionally, they may reduce the risk of cataracts, and aid in the body's healing process.
Blood oranges, like all citrus fruits, are a great source of vitamin C; an average orange provides 130% of the FDA's recommended daily intake. It also provides 16% of the recommended daily intake of dietary fiber. Oranges can also be a valuable source of folate, calcium, and vitamin A.
Blood orange juice is tart. It can be used as a cocktail ingredient. The oranges can also be used to create marmalade, and the zest can be used for baking. A popular Sicilian winter salad is made with sliced Tarocco oranges, sliced bulb fennel, parsley and olive oil. The oranges have also been used to create gelato, sorbet and Italian soda. Blood oranges are also popular in vinaigrette-style dressings, and are sometimes used to flavour niche-market beer.
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- ^ "History runs deep for blood oranges". Contra Costa Times. 2001-04-14. Archived from the original on 2006-09-03. http://web.archive.org/web/20060903224041/http://ccmg.ucdavis.edu/CCTimes/41401.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-01.
- ^ Wrolstad, Ronald E. (2001). "The Possible Health Benefits of Anthocyanin Pigments and Polyphenolics". The Linus Pauling Institute. http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/ss01/anthocyanin.html. Retrieved 2010-03-01.
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- Antonio Saltini, I cento volti di Trinacria. Viaggio fotografico nella Sicilia agricola, Ismea - Spazio rurale, Rome 2004
Cara cara navel
The Cara cara navel, or red navel orange is an early-to-midseason navel orange believed to have developed as a cross between the Washington navel and the Brazilian Bahia navel . Discovered at the Hacienda de Cara Cara in Valencia, Venezuela in 1976 , the parentage is apparently uncertain enough to occasionally warrant the distinction of a mutation, with only the tree on which it was found--the Washington navel--being an accepted progenitor. Cara caras did not enter the U.S consumer produce market until the late 1980s and were carried only by specialty markets for many years thereafter.
This medium sized navel is sweet and low in acid, the flavor is more complex than most navel varieties and has been described as evoking notes of cherry, rose petal and blackberry.
From the major growing regions, South African cara caras are ready for market starting in August, Venezuelan fruits arrive in October and Californian fruits make their seasonal debut in late November.
French Guiana: oranger. FG Creole: orange douce. FG Creole and Guyana: orange. FG Palikur: uwas. FG Wayapi: api. Guyana: sweet orange. Surinam: sinaasappel. Surinam Sranan: apresina.
The sweet orange is one of the most popular of citrus fruits. Extensively consumed as fresh fruit, in juices, squashes etc.
Many varieties are cultivated in Pakistan. Some of the commonest are as follows:
(a) Mosambi (Mozambique) Fruit globose, c. 6.5-7 cm in diameter, apex marked with a circular ring. Pulp very sweet.
(b) Bloodred: Fruit smaller, c. 5.5-7 cm in diameter. Rind thin. Pulp orange streaked with red, or ruby-red; very juicy, acid sweet. The Gujranwala Distt. is famous for its bloodred oranges.
(c) Washington Navel. Fruit somewhat longer than broad, 8-9 cm in diameter; rind deep orange, apex marked with a distinct open or closed navel, containing a rudimentary secondary fruit. Pulp juicy, sweet, highly flavoured. Seeds few or none.
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