The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


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  • 2. Bellah, R. Glenn; Hulbert, Lloyd C. 1974. Forest succession on the Republican River floodplain in Clay County, Kansas. Southwestern Naturalist. 19(2): 155-166. [241]
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  • 23. Hehnke, Merlin; Stone, Charles P. 1979. Value of riparian vegetation to avian populations along the Sacramento River Sy. In: Johnson, R. Roy; McCormick, J. Frank, technical coordinators. Strategies for protection and management of floodplain wetlands & other riparian ecosystems: Proc. of the symposium; 1978 December 11-13; Callaway Gardens, GA. General Technical Report WO-12. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 228-235. [4363]
  • 25. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1961. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. Part 3: Saxifragaceae to Ericaceae. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 614 p. [1167]
  • 26. Holmgren, Arthur H.; Reveal, James L. 1966. Checklist of the vascular plants of the Intermountain Region. Res. Pap. INT-32. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 160 p. [1184]
  • 27. Hosie, R. C. 1969. Native trees of Canada. 7th ed. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Forestry Service, Department of Fisheries and Forestry. 380 p. [3375]
  • 28. Hosner, John F.; Minckler, L. S. 1960. Hardwood reproduction in the river bottoms of southern Illinois. Forest Science. 6(1): 67-77. [3738]
  • 29. Johnston, Barry C. 1987. Plant associations of Region Two: Potential plant communities of Wyoming, South Dakota, Nebraska, Colorado, and Kansas. 4th ed. R2-ECOL-87-2. Lakewood, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region. 429 p. [3519]
  • 31. Lanner, Ronald M. 1983. Trees of the Great Basin: A natural history. Reno, NV: University of Nevada Press. 215 p. [1401]
  • 32. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agric. Handb. 541. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 375 p. [2952]
  • 33. Loehle, Craig. 1988. Tree life history strategies: the role of defenses. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 18(2): 209-222. [4421]
  • 35. Medina, Alvin L. 1986. Riparian plant communities of the Fort Bayard watershed in southwestern New Mexico. Southwestern Naturalist. 31(3): 345-359. [1629]
  • 36. Minckley, W. L.; Brown, David E. 1982. Wetlands. In: Brown, David E., ed. Biotic communities of the American Southwest--United States and Mexico. Desert Plants. 4(1-4): 223-287. [8898]
  • 37. Nelson, Jack Raymond. 1961. Composition and structure of the principal woody vegetation types in the North Dakota Badlands. Fargo, ND: North Dakota State University. 195 p. Thesis. [161]
  • 38. Nix, L. E.; Cox, S. K. 1987. Cherrybark oak enrichment plantings appear successful after seven years in South Carolina bottomlands. In: Phillips, Douglas R., compiler. Proceedings of the fourth biennial southern silvicultural research conference; 1986 November 4-6; Atlanta, GA. General Technical Report SE-42. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station: 129-132. [4197]
  • 39. Olson, David F., Jr.; Gabriel, W. J. 1974. Acer L. maple. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., technical coordinator. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 187-194. [7462]
  • 4. Butler, Jack; Goetz, Harold. 1984. Influence of livestock on the composition and structure of green ash communities in the Northern Great Plains. In: Noble, Daniel L.; Winokur, Robert P., eds. Wooded draws: characteristics and values for the Northern Great Plains: Symposium proceedings; 1984 June 12-13; Rapid City, SD. Great Plains Agricultural Council Publication No. 111. Rapid City, SD: South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Biology Department: 44-49. [572]
  • 40. Patterson, Rich. 1985. The humblest maple. American Forests. 91(5): 46-48. [5005]
  • 41. Preston, Richard J., Jr. 1948. North American trees. Ames, IA: The Iowa State College Press. 371 p. [1913]
  • 44. Roe, Eugene I. 1941. Effect of temperature on seed germination. Journal of Forestry. 39: 413-414. [2019]
  • 45. Stephens, H. A. 1973. Woody plants of the North Central Plains. Lawrence, KS: The University Press of Kansas. 530 p. [3804]
  • 46. Sutton, Richard F.; Johnson, Craig W. 1974. Landscape plants from Utah's mountains. EC-368. Logan, UT: Utah State University, Cooperative Extension Service. 135 p. [49]
  • 47. Szaro, Robert C. 1989. Riparian forest and scrubland community types of Arizona and New Mexico. Desert Plants. 9(3-4): 70-138. [604]
  • 48. Szaro, Robert C.; Patton, David R. 1986. Riparian habitat classification in the southwestern United States. Transactions of the 51st North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference: 215-221. [3516]
  • 50. Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States, their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 362 p. [4240]
  • 51. Weaver, J. E. 1960. Flood plain vegetation of the central Missouri Valley and contacts of woodland with prairie. Ecological Monographs. 30(1): 37-64. [275]
  • 52. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]
  • 53. Williams, Robert D.; Hanks, Sidney H. 1976. Hardwood nurseryman's guide. Agric. Handb. 473. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 78 p. [4182]
  • 54. Wright, Jonathan W. 1953. Notes on flowering and fruiting of northeastern trees. Station Paper No. 60. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 38 p. [5009]
  • 7. Cram, W. H. 1983. Maturity and viability of boxelder maple seeds. Tree Planter's Notes. 34(2): 36-37. [5007]
  • 9. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806]
  • Aeschimann, D. & C. Heitz. 2005. Synonymie-Index der Schweizer Flora und der angrenzenden Gebiete (SISF). 2te Auflage. Documenta Floristicae Helvetiae N° 2. Genève. External link.
  • Biegel, H.M. (1977) Check-list of ornamental plants used in Rhodesian parks and gardens. Rhodesia Agricultural Journal. Research Report No. 3. Page 18
  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp. External link.
  • Fewless, G. 2011. Acer negundo. In Trees of Wisconsin web site. Retrieved 4 October 2011 from personal communication with author.
  • Hahn, J., and M. Ascerno. 2007. Boxelder bugs. University of Minnesota Extension fact sheet. Retrieved 4 October 2011 from
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2014. Illinois Wildflowers. World Wide Web electronic publication., version 06/2014.
    See: Botanical Terminology and Line DrawingsEcological TerminologyWebsite DescriptionLinks to Other WebsitesReference Materials
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2015. Insect Visitors of Illinois Wildflowers.  World Wide Web electronic publication., version (03/2015) 
    See:   Abbreviations for Insect ActivitiesAbbreviations for Scientific ObserversReferences for behavioral observations
  • Image metadata at Bioimages ( External link.
  • MICHIGAN FLORA ONLINE. Acer negundo. A. A. Reznicek, E. G. Voss, & B. S. Walters. February 2011. University of Michigan. Web. 10-5-2011.
  • Marticorena C & R Rodríguez . 1995-2005. Flora de Chile. Vols 1, 2(1-3). Ed. Universidad de Concepción, Concepción. 351 pp., 99 pp., 93 pp., 128 pp. Matthei O. 1995. Manual de las malezas que crecen en Chile. Alfabeta Impresores. 545 p.
  • Mędrzycki, P. 2011. NOBANIS – Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheet – Acer negundo. – Retrieved 4 October 2011 from: Online Database of the European Network on Invasive Alien Species – NOBANIS
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2013). ITIS Regional: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Apr 2011). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Sapindaceae of North America Update
  • USFS 2011. U.S. Forest Service, Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER). Acer negundo. Retrieved 4 October 2011 from
  • Wagner, W.H. 1975. Notes on the floral biology of box-elder. Michigan Botanist 14:73-82.
    1. Baker, Whiteford L. 1972. Eastern forest insects. U.S.  Department of Agriculture, Miscellaneous Publication 1175.  Washington, DC. 642 p.
    3. Boivin, B. 1966. Les variations d'Acer negundo au  Canada. Le Naturaliste Canadien 93:959-962.
    5. Cram, W. H. 1983. Maturity and viability of boxelder maple  seeds. Tree Planters' Notes 34(2):36-37.
    7. Cram, W.H., and H. A. Worden. 1979. Maturity of maple and  ash seed. Tree Planters' Notes 30(4):17-19.
    9. Demos, E. K., P. Peterson, and G. J. Williams 111.1973.  Frost tolerance among populations of Acer negundo L.  American Midland Naturalist 89:223-228.
    11. Demos, E. K., T. W. Wrenn, and G. J. Williams 111.1975.  Further evidence of photoperiod ecotypes in Acer negundo  L. (Aceraceae). Southwestern Naturalist 19:395-402. 
    13. Dirr, M. A., and C. W. Heuser, Jr. 1987. The reference  manual of woody plant propagation: from seed to tissue  culture. Varsity Press, Athens, GA. 239 p.
    15. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United  States and Canada. Society of American Foresters,  Washington, DC. 148 p.
    17. Gibbons, Euell. 1962. Stalking the wild asparagus. David  McKay Co., New York. 303 p.
    19. Greco, A. M., J. E. Winstead, and F. R. Toman. 1980.  Chlorophyll levels as ecotypic characters in boxelder  seedlings. p.144-146. In Forty-first Transactions of  Kentucky Academy of Science.
    21. Green, G. H. 1934. Trees of North America, vol.11 - The  broadleaves. Edwards Bros., Ann Arbor, MI. 344 p.
    23. Hall, B. A. 1954. Variability in the floral anatomy of Acer  negundo. American Journal of Botany 41:529-532.
    25. Harlow, William M., Ellwood C. Harrar, and Fred M. White  1979. Textbook of dendrology. 6th ed. McGraw-Hill, New York.  510 p.
    27. Hepting, George H. 1971. Diseases of forest and shade trees  of the United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Agriculture Handbook 386. Washington, DC. 685 p.
    29. Hosner, John F. 1960. Relative tolerance to complete  inundation of fourteen bottomland tree species. Forest  Science 6:246-251.
    31. Hosner, John F., and L. S. Minckler. 1960. Hardwood  reproduction in the river bottoms of southern Illinois.  Forest Science 6:67-77.
    33. Li, Hui-Lin. 1960. The cultivated maples. Morris Arboretum  Bulletin 11:41-47.
    35. Maeglin, R. R., and L. F. Ohmann. 1973. Boxelder (Acer  negundo): a review and commentary. Bulletin of the  Torrey Botanical Club 100:357-363.
    37. Martin, A. C., A. S. Zim, and A. L. Nelson. 1951. American  wildlife and plants: A guide to wildlife food habits. Dover,  New York. 500 p.
    39. Phipps, H. M. 1964. Leaf blight of boxelder attributed to  2,4-D spray drift. USDA Forest Service, Research Note LS-49.  Lake States Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN. 2 p
    41. Plowman, A. B. 1915. Is the boxelder a maple? Botanical  Gazette 60:169-192.
    43. Rehder, Alfred. 1940. A manual of cultivated trees and  shrubs. MacMillan, New York. 995 p.
    45. Sargent, Charles Sprague. 1965. Manual of the trees of North  America (exclusive of Mexico). vol.2, 2d ed. Dover, New  York. 934 p.
    47. Schlaegel, B. E. 1982. Boxelder (Acer negundo L.)  biomass component regression analysis for the Mississippi  Delta. Forest Science 28:355-358.
    49. Scholten, H. 1963. Average height and diameter for some  Minnesota farmstead windbreak species. Minnesota Forestry  Notes 129. University of Minnesota, School of Forestry, St.  Paul, MN. 2 p.
    51. Schopmeyer, C. S., tech. coord. 1974. Seeds of woody plants  in the United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Agriculture Handbook 450. Washington, DC. 883 p.
    53. Vaartaja, 0. 1959. Evidence of photoperiodic ecotypes in  trees. Ecological Monographs 29:91-111.
    55. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the  Southwest. University of Texas Press, Austin, TX. 1104p.
    57. Williams, H. D., Jr., and J. E. Winstead. 1972. Population  variations in seed germination and stratification of Acer  negundo L. p. 43-48. In Thirty-third  Transactions of the Kentucky Academy of Science.
    59. Williams, R. D., Jr., and J. W. Winstead. 1972. Populational  variation in weights and analysis of caloric content in  fruit of Acer negundo L. Castanea 37:125-130.
    61. Winstead, J. E. 1978. Tracheid length as an ecotypic  character in Acer negundo L. American Journal of  Botany 65:811-812.
    63. Zolotov, H. N. 1958. [Revegetation of eroded gullies by  natural seeding from maple (in adjacent plantations).]  Lesnoe Khoziaistvo 11:68-79. [Original not seen. Abstract in  Forestry Abstracts 20(3146).]



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