The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1996. database, The PLANTS Database
  • 2000. database, The PLANTS Database
  • American Entomologist and Botanist 2: 288. 1870. (Amer. Entomol.)
  • American Midland Naturalist 28(1): 151–152, f. 2, 4A, 11G–M. 1942. (Amer. Midl. Naturalist)
  • American Midland Naturalist 28(1): 152–156, f. 1A, 2F, 4B–D, 9B, 12. 1942. (Amer. Midl. Naturalist)
  • Anonymous. 1986. List-Based Rec., Soil Conserv. Serv., U.S.D.A. Database of the U.S.D.A., Beltsville.
  • Fernald, M. 1950. Manual (ed. 8) i–lxiv, 1–1632. American Book Co., New York.
  • Gleason, H. A. & A.J. Cronquist. 1991. Man. Vasc. Pl. N.E. U.S. (ed. 2) i–910. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2015). ITIS Regional: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Dec 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles & C. R. Bell. 1968. Man. Vasc. Fl. Carolinas i–lxi, 1–1183. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
  • Saxifragaceae, Parnassiaceae, Celastraceae of N. America Update
  • Saxifragearum Enumeratio. . . accedunt revisiones plantarum succulentarum 45. 1821. (Saxifrag. Enum.)
  • Species Plantarum 1: 399. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.)


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