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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Plains to Low Altitude, Cultivated, Native of Tropical America"
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Climber Distribution notes: Exotic
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Climber Distribution notes: Exotic
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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: This taxon has native and non-native infrataxa in the U.S. It is native in New Mexico (two counties), Arkansas, Georgia, Illinois, Missouri, Mississippi, Texas, and West Virginia. The native range overlaps the non-native range in Kentucky and Louisiana. Also occurs in Canada in Ontario and Quebec, as well as Puerto Rico. (Kartesz 2003 draft)

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"
Global Distribution

Cultivated in all warm and temperate parts of the world

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: All Districts

"
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"
Global Distribution

Cultivated in all warm and temperate parts of the world

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: All Districts

"
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Maharashtra: Pune Karnataka: Hassan Kerala: All districts Tamil Nadu: All districts
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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Stout, hispid-hairy, climbing annuals. Leaves alternate, petioled, cordate, ovate, 10-15 cm, usually prominently and acutely lobed; petiole with rigid prickly hairs; tendrils 2-4-fid. Plants monoecious. Flowers yellow, large, solitary; peduncles sulcate and angled; expanded at the top, strongly grooved in fruit. Sepals foliaceous. Corolla united, campanulate, narrowed at base with erect lobes. Stamens inserted low down; filaments 3, short; anthers connate in a column. Ovary oblong; style short; stigmas large. Fruit a pepo, large, furrowed; seeds ovoid or oblong, compressed smooth."
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Diagnostic

"Stout, hispid-hairy, climbing annuals. Leaves alternate, petioled, cordate, ovate, 10-15 cm, usually prominently and acutely lobed; petiole with rigid prickly hairs; tendrils 2-4-fid. Plants monoecious. Flowers yellow, large, solitary; peduncles sulcate and angled; expanded at the top, strongly grooved in fruit. Sepals foliaceous. Corolla united, campanulate, narrowed at base with erect lobes. Stamens inserted low down; filaments 3, short; anthers connate in a column. Ovary oblong; style short; stigmas large. Fruit a pepo, large, furrowed; seeds ovoid or oblong, compressed smooth."
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Diagnostic

Habit: Climber
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Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

Cultivated
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General Habitat

Cultivated
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Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Summer Squash in Illinois

Cucurbita pepo (Summer Squash) introduced
(Long-tongued bees suck nectar or collect pollen; observations are from Robertson)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera sn cp fq; Apidae (Bombini): Bombus impatiens sn, Bombus pensylvanica sn cp fq; Anthophoridae (Eucerini): Melissodes bimaculata bimaculata sn, Peponapis pruinosa pruinosa sn cp fq olg, Xenoglossa strenua sn cp fq olg

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Foodplant / gall
Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes gall of stem (esp. base) of Cucurbita pepo

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / spot causer
numerous, crowded, blackish-brown, erumpent then very prominent pycnidium of Ascochyta coelomycetous anamorph of Ascochyta cucumeris causes spots on live epicarp of Cucurbita pepo
Remarks: season: 9-11

Foodplant / pathogen
colony of Cladosporium dematiaceous anamorph of Cladosporium cucumerinum infects and damages live Cucurbita pepo
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / pathogen
pycnidium of Colletotrichum coelomycetous anamorph of Colletotrichum lagenarium infects and damages live fruit of Cucurbita pepo
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / spot causer
erumpent pycnidium of Ascochyta coelomycetous anamorph of Didymella bryoniae causes spots on live stem (lower) of Cucurbita pepo

Foodplant / parasite
Golovinomyces orontii parasitises live Cucurbita pepo

Foodplant / spot causer
pycnidium of Phyllosticta coelomycetous anamorph of Phyllosticta cucurbitacearum causes spots on live leaf of Cucurbita pepo

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: August-April
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Flowering and fruiting: August-April
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Evolution and Systematics

Functional Adaptations

Functional adaptation

Convex surface geometry resists adhesion: pumpkin
 

Plant leaves resist adhesion of water and dirt due to convex geometry on their surface.

     
  "Non-smoothness is a common natural phenomenon in [the] biological world, which has been formed during the long evolutionary process of living creatures as a stable, self-adaptive system. The non-smooth surfaces of plants, resulting from long interaction between self-growing mechanism and external environment, exert several important functions, such as water repellency, anti-adhesion, and self-cleaning." (Ren et al. 2007:33)
  Learn more about this functional adaptation.
  • Ren, Lu-quan; Wang, Shu-jie; Tian, Xi-mei; Han, Zhi-wu; Yan, Lin-na; Qiu, Zhao-mei. 2007. Non-Smooth Morphologies of Typical Plant Leaf Surfaces and Their Anti-Adhesion Effects. Journal of Bionic Engineering. 4(1): 33-40.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Cucurbita pepo

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Cucurbita pepo

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 4
Specimens with Barcodes: 7
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure

Reasons: This taxon has native and non-native infrataxa in the U.S. It is native in New Mexico (two counties), Arkansas, Georgia, Illinois, Missouri, Mississippi, Texas, and West Virginia. The native range overlaps the non-native range in Kentucky and Louisiana. Also occurs in Canada in Ontario and Quebec, as well as Puerto Rico. (Kartesz 2003 draft) Scattered in Illinois and occurs in moist soil (Mohlenbrock 1986).

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Management

These species are introduced in Switzerland.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Fruit: Eaten to expel stomach worms; for liver ailments. Unripe fruit mixed with linseed oil and cooked into a paste used on abscesses. Seed: A well-known remedy for tapeworm in Surinam.

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Economic Uses

Uses: MEDICINE/DRUG, Folk medicine

Comments: Similar to the uses of C. moschata. In Mexico, the seeds are given with castor oil as an anthelmintic. The seed oil is applied to persistent ulcers in Venezuela, and a decoction of the flowers has been used to treat measles and small pox. Colombians report that a root infusion is febrifugal and also is applied to syphilitic ulcers. The seeds are said to be excellent vermifuges and taenifuges and the fruits are diuretic. In the Yucatán the fruit is considered to be an antidiabetic. In Curaçao, a decoction of the flowers or fruits is used to treat jaundice. In Brazil, the seeds are active against taenia when given in coconut milk, especially in children.

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Wikipedia

Cucurbita pepo

Cucurbita pepo!<-- This template has to be "warmed up" before it can be used, for some reason -->

The species Cucurbita pepo is a cultivated plant of the genus Cucurbita. It includes varieties of squash, gourd, and pumpkin.

Gallery

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Gem squash

South African Gem Squash.JPG

Gem squash (Cucurbita pepo) is a variety of summer squash that was domesticated from two wild varieties; Cucurbita texana found in the southern and central United States and Cucurbita fraterna found in Mexico. [1] The dark green spherical fruit, when fully ripe, is about the size of a softball (slightly larger than a tennis ball). The fruit needs to be boiled in order to render it palatable. The young fruit is often harvested before it is ripe (about golf ball size) due to its having a more delicate flavour and texture.

Gem Squash is commonly available in the following countries:

References

  1. ^ Sauer, Jonathan D. (1993). Historical geography of crop plants - a select roster. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. ISBN 0849389011. 
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Notes

Common Names

Surinam: pampoe, pompoen. Surinam Sranan: pampoen.

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Synonyms

Cucumis pepo (L.) Dum.

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