The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1996. database, The PLANTS Database
  • 1996. database, NODC Taxonomic Code
  • 2000. database, The PLANTS Database
  • Aeschimann, D. & C. Heitz. 2005. Synonymie-Index der Schweizer Flora und der angrenzenden Gebiete (SISF). 2te Auflage. Documenta Floristicae Helvetiae N° 2. Genève. External link.
  • Cucurbitaceae of North America Update
  • Decker, D.S. 1988. Origin(s), Evolution, and Systematics of Cucurbita pepo (Cucurbitaceae). Economic Botany 42(1): 4-15.
  • Decker-Walters, D. S.; Staub, J. E.; Chung, S.-M.; Nakata, E.; Quemada, H. D. (2002). "Diversity in Free-Living Populations of Cucurbita pepo (Cucurbitaceae) as Assessed by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA". Systematic Botany (American Society of Plant Taxonomists) 27 (1): 19–28. doi:10.2307.2F3093892.
  • Decker-Walters, D.S. 1990. “Evidence for multiple domestications of Cucurbita pepo.” In Bates, D.M., R.W. Robinson, and C. Jeffrey, eds. Biology and Utilization of the Cucurbitaceae. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Pp. 96–101.
  • ECPGR. 2008. Minimum descriptors for Cucurbita spp., cucumber, melon and watermelon. European Cooperative Programme for Plant Genetic Resources (ECPGR), Working Group on Cucurbits. Accessed 28 November 2011 from
  • Encyclopedia Britannica. 1993. “Squash.” Micropedia Vol. 11: 185. Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc.
  • FAOSTAT. 2011. FAOSTAT 2011. Searchable online database from Food and Agriculture Division of the United Nations. Retrieved 20 November 2011 from
  • Heyde, H. 1987. Surinaamse Medicijnplanten. Ed. 2. 112 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Westfort. (Followed by: Heyde, H. 1990. Medecijn Planten in Suriname (Den Dresi Wiwiri foe Sranan). 157 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Stichting Gezondheidsplanten Informatie).
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2015. Insect Visitors of Illinois Wildflowers.  World Wide Web electronic publication., version (03/2015) 
    See:   Abbreviations for Insect ActivitiesAbbreviations for Scientific ObserversReferences for behavioral observations
  • Kew Royal Botanic Gardens 2013. Cucurbita pepo species profile. Retrieved October 15, 2013 from
  • Marticorena C & R Rodríguez . 1995-2005. Flora de Chile. Vols 1, 2(1-3). Ed. Universidad de Concepción, Concepción. 351 pp., 99 pp., 93 pp., 128 pp. Matthei O. 1995. Manual de las malezas que crecen en Chile. Alfabeta Impresores. 545 p.
  • May, A.F. 1982. Surinaams Kruidenboek (Sranan Oso Dresi). 80 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Vaco; and Zutphen, The Netherlands: De Walburg Pers.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2013). ITIS Regional: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Apr 2011). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Paris, Harry S. (1986). "A Proposed Subspecific Classification for Cucurbita pepo". Phytologia (Bronx Park) 61 (3): 133–138.
  • Ren, Lu-quan; Wang, Shu-jie; Tian, Xi-mei; Han, Zhi-wu; Yan, Lin-na; Qiu, Zhao-mei. 2007. Non-Smooth Morphologies of Typical Plant Leaf Surfaces and Their Anti-Adhesion Effects. Journal of Bionic Engineering. 4(1): 33-40.
  • Saade, L.R. and Montes Hernandez, S. Cucurbites (Cucurbita spp). 1994. In: Hernandez Bermejo, J.E. and Leon, J. (eds). Neglected Crops: 1492 from a different perspecitive. FAO Plant production and protection Series no. 26. Retrieved October 15, 2013 from
  • Sanjur, Oris I.; Piperno, Dolores R.; Andres, Thomas C.; Wessel-Beaver, Linda (2002). "Phylogenetic Relationships among Domesticated and Wild Species of Cucurbita (Cucurbitaceae) Inferred from a Mitochondrial Gene: Implications for Crop Plant Evolution and Areas of Origin" (PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences) 99 (1): 535–540. JSTOR 3057572.
  • Schoenian, S. 2011. Small ruminant information sheet: Marketing claims for sheep and goats. University of Maryland Extension Service. Accessed 22 November 2011 from
  • Schultes, R.E. 1990. “Biodynamic cucurbits in the New World tropics.” In Bates, D.M., R.W. Robinson, and C. Jeffrey, eds. Biology and Utilization of the Cucurbitaceae. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Pp. 307–324.
  • Smith, B.D. Science 9 May 1997: The Initial Domestication of Cucurbita pepo in the Americas 10,000 Years Ago. Vol. 276 no. 5314 pp. 932-934. DOI: 10.1126/science.276.5314.932
  • Waynesword. 2011. The wild and wonderful world of gourds. Wayne’s Word: An online textbook of natural history. Retrieved 28 November 2011 from
  • Whittaker, T.S., and G.N. Davis. 1962. Cucurbits: Botany, Cultivation, and Utilization. 1962. New York: Interscience Publishers. 249 p.
  • Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 10 October, 2013. Cucurbita pepo. Retrieved October 15, 2013 from


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