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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

Notes: Cultivated
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Tree Distribution notes: Exotic
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Description

Tall tree with straight trunk and ± horizontal main branches; bark smooth, usually with scattered conical spines to 1.5 cm long; young branches glabrous or pubescent. Leaves 5–9-foliolate; leaflets narrowly elliptic-obovate, entire, acuminate, 7–20 x 1.8–6.5 cm, glabrous; petiole 5.5–25 cm long, at the apex expanded into an almost circular disk. Flowers often on leafless branches or present when the whole tree is leafless, in 1–15-flowered axillary clusters. Calyx 9–15 mm long, lobed, glabrous outside, pubescent inside. Petals pink or white, oblong, 2–3.5 cm long. Filament-tube 5–9 mm long; anthers coiled or reniform. Ovary glabrous or nearly so; style 2.5–3.3 cm long. Capsule ± woody, smooth, brown, oblong-ellipsoid, up to c. 26 x 11 cm. Seeds subglobose, c. 6 mm across.

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Source: Vascular Plants of Korup National Park

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Distribution

"Planted around the villages and roadsides. Common. Native of Africa, now widely planted in the tropics."
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"Maharashtra: Kolhapur, Pune Karnataka: Coorg, Mysore, N. Kanara, Shimoga Kerala: All districts"
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"
Global Distribution

Throughout the tropics

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: All Districts

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Global Distribution

Widespread in Tropical Africa and America

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Source: Vascular Plants of Korup National Park

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Distribution: Throughout the tropics of the world.
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Physical Description

Morphology

"
Flower

In clusters at the ends of branchlets, white or whitish-yellow. Flowering January-April.

Fruit

An ellipsoid to fusiform capsule, indehiscent, valves with silky fibres; seeds numerous, subglobose, enveloped in silky cotton.

Field tips

Stem prickly when young, later smooth, green. Branchlets drooping. Tree leafless when flowering.

Leaf Arrangement

Whorled

Leaf Type

Digitate

Leaf Shape

Oblanceolate, elliptic or oblong

Leaf Apex

Subacute or acuminate

Leaf Base

Obtuse-cuneate

Leaf Margin

Entire

"
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Description

Trees to 30 m tall; buttresses small or absent, trunk often sparsely spiny; main branches verticillate, spreading horizontally; young branches spiny. Petiole 7-14(-25) cm, longer than leaflet blade; leaflets 5-9, petiolules 3-4(-10) mm; blades oblong to lanceolate, 5-20 × 1.5-6.5 cm, thinly leathery, glabrous, base acuminate, margin entire or very sparsely and minutely toothed near apex, apex shortly acuminate. Flowers subterminal, solitary or in fascicles of up to 15, produced before or simultaneous with new leaves. Pedicel (1.8-)2.5-5 cm. Calyx (0.9-)1.2-2 cm, adaxially glabrous. Petals pink or white, obovate-oblong, 2.5-4 × 0.7-1.5 cm, abaxially densely white villous, adaxially glabrous. Filaments on staminal tube varying in length; anthers reniform. Ovary glabrous; style 2.5-3.5 cm; stigma rod-shaped, 5-lobed. Capsule oblong, tapering toward tip, 7.5-15(-26) × 3-5(-11) cm, fruiting pedicel 7-25 cm, endocarp leathery, smooth. Seeds globose, ca. 6 mm in diam. Fl. Mar-Apr.
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Description

Tree up to 100 ft. high trunk with large buttresses, branches with or without prickles, generally prickly in young stage, prickles acute. Leaves 5-9 foliolate, glabrous, petiole 5-23 cm long, leaflet oblong lanceolate, acuminate-7-20 cm x 2.3-4.2 cm, petiolule 0.5-1.2 cm long. Flowers usually appear before the flush of leaves. Inflorescence fasciculate few to many flowered. Flowers yellow or white, pedicel 2.5-3 cm long. Calyx campanulate 4-5 lobed, lobes 1-1.2 cm long, glabrous outside, silky villous inside. Petals obovate-oblong, 2.5-4 cm x 1-1.5 cm, tomentose outside, except the base, pubescent near the apex inside. Staminal column 5-5.5 mm long, glabrous, filament 2.5 cm long, each branch bearing 2-3 anfractuose anthers. Ovary globose, stigma capitate. Capsule wooly ellipsoid or fusiform, acute at both ends 10-26 cm long and 3-4 cm in diam. Seeds numerous subglobose 5.5-7 mm long and 4.4-5.5 mm wide.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Trees, to 20 m high, buttressed at base; bark green or greenish-grey, peeling off in round bosses; exudation red, watery, sticky; branches horizontal in whorls. Leaves digitately compound, alternate, gathered towards the apex of branchlets; rachis 5-20 cm, slender, glabrous, swollen tip and base; leaflets 5-9; petiolule 3-8 mm, stout, glabrous; lamina 4.5-14.5 x 1.5-4 cm, elliptic, obovate-oblong or ovate-oblong, base acute or cuneate, apex acute or acuminate, margin entire, glabrous, chartaceous; lateral nerves 5-14 pairs, pinnate, prominent, intercostae reticulate, prominent. Flowers bisexual, creamy white, usually in clusters of 3-10, axillary or grouped towards the ends of leafless branchlets, rarely solitary, axillary; pedicels 2-4 cm long, stout, glabrous; calyx green, campanulate, ca. 1 cm long, irregularly 4-5 lobed, coriaceous, glabrous outside, silky pubescent inside, persistent; petals 5, 2.5-4 x 1-1.5 cm, creamy white, obovate-spathulate, adnate to the base of staminal tube, tomentose out side except at the base pubescent near the apex inside, imbricate; staminal tube divided into 5 phalanges, each dividing again into 2 filiform branches bearing 2-3 anafractose, 1-locular twisted anthers; ovary superior, globular or ovoid, yellow, sessile, tomentose at apex; 5-locular, ovules many in each locule, on axil placenta; style white, filiform at base, suddenly obliquely enlarged above the stamens; stigma capitate. Fruit a capsule 7.5-25 x 3-4 cm, ellipsoid to fusiform, green when young, become brown, narrowed at both ends, indehiscent or tardily dehiscing into 5 valves, septa membranous; seeds numerous, subpyriform, black with copious white silky fibres, testa brown to blackish."
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Diagnostic

"Habit: A large deciduous tree, upto 20m."
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Diagnostic

Habit: Large tree
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Synonym

Bombax pentandrum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 511. 1753; Eriodendron anfractuosum Candolle.
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Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

Cultivated
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Habitat & Distribution

Cultivated. Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan [native to tropical America and possibly West Africa; now pantropical, regarded as invasive on some Pacific islands].
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: February-June
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Chemistry

Leaf contains derivatives of quercetin and kaempferol, tannins and caffeic acid.

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Ceiba pentandra

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 21
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Stem: The French Guiana Wayapi wash in a decoction of the bark for its febrifuge properties. Leaf: Surinam Indonesians use juice from bruised young branches in a preparation to treat asthma. Infusion for dissolving phlegm and to soothe rectal inflammation. Leaves stewed for a gonorrhoea remedy.

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Uses

"

The cotton is used for making pillows and cushions. The roots are stimulant tonic, diuretic, emetic and antispasmodic, they have hypoglycaemic effect and are useful in diabetes, dysentery and gonorrhoea.

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Folklore

Apis dorsata forage on the flower during night time.

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Wikipedia

Ceiba pentandra

Ceiba pentandra is a tropical tree of the order Malvales and the family Malvaceae (previously separated in the family Bombacaceae), native to Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean, northern South America, and (as the variety C. pentandra var. guineensis) to tropical west Africa. Kapok is the most used common name for the tree and may also refer to the cotton-like fluff obtained from its seed pods. The tree is cultivated for the seed fibre, particularly in south-east Asia, and is also known as the Java cotton, Java kapok, silk-cotton, Samauma, or ceiba.

Characteristics[edit]

The tree grows to 70 m (230 ft.) with a trunk up to 3 m (10 ft.) in diameter with buttresses. The trunk and many of the larger branches are often crowded with large simple thorns. The palmate leaves are composed of 5 to 9 leaflets, each up to 20 cm (8 in) long. The trees produce several hundred 15 cm (6 in) pods containing seeds surrounded by a fluffy, yellowish fibre that is a mix of lignin and cellulose. One of the oldest known trees, at 200 years, lives in Miami, Florida.[2][dubious ]

Uses[edit]

Kapok seeds within fibres in Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

Kapok fibre is light, very buoyant, resilient, resistant to water, but it is very flammable. The process of harvesting and separating the fibre is labour-intensive and manual. It is difficult to spin, but is used as an alternative to down as filling in mattresses, pillows, upholstery, zafus, and stuffed toys such as teddy bears, and for insulation. It was previously much used in life jackets and similar devices until synthetic materials largely replaced the fibre. The seeds produce an oil, used locally in soap and that can be used as fertilizer.

Native tribes along the Amazon River harvest kapok fibre to wrap around their blowgun darts. The fibres create a seal that allows the pressure to force the dart through the tube.

The commercial tree is most heavily cultivated in the rainforests of Asia, notably in Java (hence its nicknames), Philippines, Malaysia, Hainan Island in China as well as in South America. The flowers are an important source of nectar and pollen for honey bees.

Ethnomedical uses[edit]

Ceiba pentandra bark decoction has been used as a diuretic, aphrodisiac, and to treat headache, as well as type II diabetes. It is used as an additive in some versions of the hallucinogenic drink Ayahuasca.

Kapok seed oil[edit]

A vegetable oil can be pressed from kapok seeds. The oil has a yellow colour and a pleasant, mild odour and taste,[3] resembling cottonseed oil. It becomes rancid quickly when exposed to air. Kapok oil is produced in India, Indonesia and Malaysia. It has an iodine value of 85-100; this makes it a nondrying oil, which means that it does not dry out significantly when exposed to air.[3] Kapok oil has some potential as a biofuel and in paint preparation.

Religion and folklore[edit]

The kapok is a sacred symbol in Maya mythology.[4]

According to the folklore of Trinidad and Tobago, the Castle of the Devil is a huge kapok growing deep in the forest in which Bazil the demon of death was imprisoned by a carpenter. The carpenter tricked the devil into entering the tree in which he carved seven rooms, one above the other, into the trunk. Folklore claims that Bazil still resides in that tree.[5]

Symbolism[edit]

C. pentandra is the national emblem of Guatemala,[4] Puerto Rico,[6] and Equatorial Guinea. It appears on the coat of arms and flag of Equatorial Guinea.[7]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ gbif.org
  2. ^ "Terrazas Miami in Miami River". Paz Realtors. Retrieved 15 April 2014. 
  3. ^ a b Kapok seed oil From the German Transport Information Service
  4. ^ a b Hellmuth, Nicholas (March 2011). "Ceiba pentandra". Revue Magazine. 
  5. ^ "Tobago’s Avatar – ‘The tree of life’". Tobago News. 2012-03-01. 
  6. ^ Philpott, Don (2003). Landmark Puerto Rico. Hunter Publishing, Inc. p. 14. ISBN 9781901522341. 
  7. ^ Berry, Bruce. "Equatorial Guinea". CRW Flags. Retrieved 2013-04-27. 
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Notes

Common Names

FG Creole: fromager. FG Boni: kakatri. FG Palikur: kumak. FG Wayapi: kumaka. Guyana Akawaio: kumak. Guyana Arawak: kumaka. Guyana Carib: makau. Guyana Creole: cotton, jumbie tree, silk. Guyana Macushi: kumae. Guyana Wapishana: wirin. Surinam: wilde kapokboom. Surinam Sranan: kankantri.

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Comments

Rarely cultivated in Pakistan for its beautiful flowers.
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Comments

This species is grown as a street tree and for the waterproof fibers surrounding the seeds (kapok).
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