Tall tree with straight trunk and ± horizontal main branches; bark smooth, usually with scattered conical spines to 1.5 cm long; young branches glabrous or pubescent. Leaves 5–9-foliolate; leaflets narrowly elliptic-obovate, entire, acuminate, 7–20 x 1.8–6.5 cm, glabrous; petiole 5.5–25 cm long, at the apex expanded into an almost circular disk. Flowers often on leafless branches or present when the whole tree is leafless, in 1–15-flowered axillary clusters. Calyx 9–15 mm long, lobed, glabrous outside, pubescent inside. Petals pink or white, oblong, 2–3.5 cm long. Filament-tube 5–9 mm long; anthers coiled or reniform. Ovary glabrous or nearly so; style 2.5–3.3 cm long. Capsule ± woody, smooth, brown, oblong-ellipsoid, up to c. 26 x 11 cm. Seeds subglobose, c. 6 mm across.
Throughout the tropics
State - Kerala, District/s: All Districts"
Widespread in Tropical Africa and America
In clusters at the ends of branchlets, white or whitish-yellow. Flowering January-April.
An ellipsoid to fusiform capsule, indehiscent, valves with silky fibres; seeds numerous, subglobose, enveloped in silky cotton.
Stem prickly when young, later smooth, green. Branchlets drooping. Tree leafless when flowering.
Oblanceolate, elliptic or oblong
Subacute or acuminate
Habitat & Distribution
Life History and Behavior
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Leaf contains derivatives of quercetin and kaempferol, tannins and caffeic acid.
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Ceiba pentandra
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 21
Species With Barcodes: 1
Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems
Stem: The French Guiana Wayapi wash in a decoction of the bark for its febrifuge properties. Leaf: Surinam Indonesians use juice from bruised young branches in a preparation to treat asthma. Infusion for dissolving phlegm and to soothe rectal inflammation. Leaves stewed for a gonorrhoea remedy.
The cotton is used for making pillows and cushions. The roots are stimulant tonic, diuretic, emetic and antispasmodic, they have hypoglycaemic effect and are useful in diabetes, dysentery and gonorrhoea."
Apis dorsata forage on the flower during night time.
Ceiba pentandra is a tropical tree of the order Malvales and the family Malvaceae (previously separated in the family Bombacaceae), native to Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean, northern South America, and (as the variety C. pentandra var. guineensis) to tropical west Africa. Kapok is the most used common name for the tree and may also refer to the cotton-like fluff obtained from its seed pods. The tree is cultivated for the seed fibre, particularly in south-east Asia, and is also known as the Java cotton, Java kapok, silk-cotton, Samauma, or ceiba.
The tree grows to 70 m (230 ft.) with a trunk up to 3 m (10 ft.) in diameter with buttresses. The trunk and many of the larger branches are often crowded with large simple thorns. The palmate leaves are composed of 5 to 9 leaflets, each up to 20 cm (8 in) long. The trees produce several hundred 15 cm (6 in) pods containing seeds surrounded by a fluffy, yellowish fibre that is a mix of lignin and cellulose. One of the oldest known trees, at 200 years, lives in Miami, Florida.[dubious ]
Kapok fibre is light, very buoyant, resilient, resistant to water, but it is very flammable. The process of harvesting and separating the fibre is labour-intensive and manual. It is difficult to spin, but is used as an alternative to down as filling in mattresses, pillows, upholstery, zafus, and stuffed toys such as teddy bears, and for insulation. It was previously much used in life jackets and similar devices until synthetic materials largely replaced the fibre. The seeds produce an oil, used locally in soap and that can be used as fertilizer.
The commercial tree is most heavily cultivated in the rainforests of Asia, notably in Java (hence its nicknames), Philippines, Malaysia, Hainan Island in China as well as in South America. The flowers are an important source of nectar and pollen for honey bees.
Ceiba pentandra bark decoction has been used as a diuretic, aphrodisiac, and to treat headache, as well as type II diabetes. It is used as an additive in some versions of the hallucinogenic drink Ayahuasca.
Kapok seed oil
A vegetable oil can be pressed from kapok seeds. The oil has a yellow colour and a pleasant, mild odour and taste, resembling cottonseed oil. It becomes rancid quickly when exposed to air. Kapok oil is produced in India, Indonesia and Malaysia. It has an iodine value of 85-100; this makes it a nondrying oil, which means that it does not dry out significantly when exposed to air. Kapok oil has some potential as a biofuel and in paint preparation.
Religion and folklore
According to the folklore of Trinidad and Tobago, the Castle of the Devil is a huge kapok growing deep in the forest in which Bazil the demon of death was imprisoned by a carpenter. The carpenter tricked the devil into entering the tree in which he carved seven rooms, one above the other, into the trunk. Folklore claims that Bazil still resides in that tree.
Kapok bark (with a black-hooded oriole)
- "Terrazas Miami in Miami River". Paz Realtors. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
- Kapok seed oil From the German Transport Information Service
- Hellmuth, Nicholas (March 2011). "Ceiba pentandra". Revue Magazine.
- "Tobago’s Avatar – ‘The tree of life’". Tobago News. 2012-03-01.
- Philpott, Don (2003). Landmark Puerto Rico. Hunter Publishing, Inc. p. 14. ISBN 9781901522341.
- Berry, Bruce. "Equatorial Guinea". CRW Flags. Retrieved 2013-04-27.
FG Creole: fromager. FG Boni: kakatri. FG Palikur: kumak. FG Wayapi: kumaka. Guyana Akawaio: kumak. Guyana Arawak: kumaka. Guyana Carib: makau. Guyana Creole: cotton, jumbie tree, silk. Guyana Macushi: kumae. Guyana Wapishana: wirin. Surinam: wilde kapokboom. Surinam Sranan: kankantri.
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