The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


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  • Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Fl. Great Plains i–vii, 1–1392. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence.
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2015. Insect Visitors of Illinois Wildflowers.  World Wide Web electronic publication., version (09/2015) 
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  • Marticorena C & R Rodríguez . 1995-2005. Flora de Chile. Vols 1, 2(1-3). Ed. Universidad de Concepción, Concepción. 351 pp., 99 pp., 93 pp., 128 pp. Matthei O. 1995. Manual de las malezas que crecen en Chile. Alfabeta Impresores. 545 p.
  • Molina Rosito, A. 1975. Enumeración de las plantas de Honduras. Ceiba 19(1): 1–118.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2015). ITIS Regional: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Dec 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles & C. R. Bell. 1968. Man. Vasc. Fl. Carolinas i–lxi, 1–1183. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
  • Schwegman, J. E. 1991. The Vascular Flora of Langham Island, Kankakee County, Illinois. Erigenia 11: 1–8.
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    1. Allen, D. C. 1987. Insects, declines and general health of  northern hardwoods: issues relevant to good forest  management. p. 252-285. In Managing Northern Hardwoods,  Proceedings of a Silvicultural Symposium. Society of  American Foresters Publication No. 87-03, Washington, D.C. 
    3. Anderson, G. J. 1976. Pollination biology of Tilia.  American Journal of Botany 63:1203-1212.
    5. Ashby, W. C. 1960. Seedling growth and water uptake by Tilia  americana at several root temperatures. Botanical  Gazette 121:228-233.
    7. Ashby, W. C. 1962. Germination capacity in American  basswood. Transactions Illinois Academy of Science  55:120-123.
    9. Ashby, W. C. 1962. Root growth in American basswood.  Ecology 43:336-339.
    11. Ashby, W. C. 1976. Basswood seedlings outgrow red and bur  oak in full light or heavy shade. Tree Planters' Notes  27:24-26, 34.
    13. Bailey, C. V. 1961. Early collection and immediate sowing  increases germination of basswood seed. Tree Planters'Notes  46:27-28.
    15. Basham, J. T., and Z. J. R. Morawski. 1964. Cull studies,  the defects and associated basidiomycete fungi in the  heartwood of living trees in the forests of Ontario.  Canadian Forestry Service Department of Forestry,  Publication 1072. Ottawa, ON. 69 p.
    17. Braun, E. Lucy. 1964. Deciduous forests of eastern North  America. Hafner, New York and London. 596 p.
    19. Buech, R. R. 1976. Tree shoot elongation in northern  Wisconsin and relationships with temperature and  precipitation. Canadian Journal of Forest Research  6:487-498.
    21. Carmean, W. H. 1979. A comparison of site index curves for  northern hardwood species. USDA Forest Service, Research  Paper NC-167. North Central Forest Experiment Station, St.  Paul, MN. 12 p.
    23. Carvell, K. L., and W. Moxey. 1971. A practical method of  evaluating forest tree vigor. West Virginia Agriculture and  Forestry 3:4-5.
    25. Curtis, J. T. 1959. The vegetation of Wisconsin. University  of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 657 p.
    27. Deshpande, B. P. 1967. Initiation of cambial activity and  its relation to primary growth in Tilia americana L.  Thesis (Ph.D.), University of Wisconsin, Madison. 65 p. 
    29. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United  States and Canada. Society of American Foresters,  Washington, DC. 148 p.
    31. Fayle, D. C. F. 1962. What's known about basswood. Canadian  Forestry Service Department of Forestry, Forest Resource  Branch Mimeo 62-4, Ottawa, ON. 20 p.
    33. Fowells, H. A., comp. 1965. Silvics of forest trees of the  United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture  Handbook 271. Washington, DC. 762 p.
    35. Godman, R. M., and G. A. Mattson. 1976. Seed crops and  regeneration problems of 19 species in northeastern  Wisconsin. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper NC-123. North  Central Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN. 5 p.
    37. Harper, K. T. 1963. Structure and dynamics of sugar  maple-basswood forests of southern Wisconsin. Thesis  (Ph.D.), University of Wisconsin, Madison. 143 p.
    39. Hickok, L. G., and J. C. Anway. 1972. A morphological and  chemical analysis of geographical variation in Tilia  L. of eastern North America. Brittonia 24:2-8.
    41. Houston, D. R. 1979. Classifying forest susceptibility to  gypsy moth defoliation. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Agricultural Handbook 542. 19 p.
    43. Houston, D. R. 1986. Insects and diseases of the northern  hardwood forest ecosystems. p. 109-138. In The  Northern Hardwood Resource: Management and Potential.  Michigan Technological University, Houghton.
    45. Johnson, P. S., and R. M. Godman. 1983. Precommercial  thinning of oak, basswood, and red maple sprout clumps. p.  124-142. In Silviculture of Established Stands,  Proceedings SAF Region V Technical Conference, Duluth, MN.  Society of American Foresters, Washington, D.C.
    47. Jones, G. N. 1968. Taxonomy of the American species of  linden (Tilia). Illinois Biological Monographs 39.  University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 65 p.
    49. Kallio, E., and R. M. Godman. 1973. American basswood ... an  American wood. USDA Forest Service, FS-219. Washington, DC.  8 p.
    51. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States  trees (native and naturalized). U.S. Department of  Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 541. Washington, DC. 375  p.
    53. Mauffette, Y., and L. Jobin. 1983. Host preferences of the  gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar(L.), in southern  Quebec. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 13:53-60.
    55. Mitchell, H. L., and R. F. Chandler, Jr. 1939. The nitrogen  nutrition and growth of certain deciduous trees of  northeastern United States. Black Rock Forest Bulletin 11.  Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. 94 p.
    57. Mohn, C. A. 1964. Timing of seed collections to increase  germination of basswood seed. University of Minnesota,  Forestry Notes 152. Minneapolis. 2 p.
    59. Park, J. H. 1971. Some ecological factors affecting the  formation of Cenococcum mycorrhizae on basswood in  southern Ontario. Canadian Journal of Botany 49:95-97.
    61. Perala, D. A. 1974. Growth and survival of northern hardwood  sprouts after burning. USDA Forest Service, Research Note  NC-176. North Central Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul,  MN. 4 p.
    63. Rowe, J. S. 1972. The forest regions of Canada. Canadian  Forestry Service, Publication 1300. Ottawa, ON. 172 p.
    65. Stroempl, G. 1965. Germination of early collected fruit of  Tilia americana L. Research Report 64. Ontario Department of  Lands and Forests, Ottawa. 22 p.
    67. Stroempl, G. 1968. Relationships of fruit and seed form,  size, weight and soundness of graded basswood fruit. Tree  Planters'Notes 19:1-7.
    69. Stroempl, G. 1969. Fruit defects in basswood (Tilia  americana L.). Forestry Chronicle 45:172.
    71. Stroempl, G. 1971. Planting of basswood is successful in  hardwood cutovers. Tree Planters'Notes 22:26-29.
    73. Stroempl, G. 1983. Growth response of basswood and sugar  maple to an intermediate cutting. Ontario Ministry of  Natural Resources, Forest Research Report 107. 19 p.
    75. Stroempl, G. 1983. Thinning clumps of northern hardwood  stump sprouts to produce high quality timber. Ontario  Ministry of Natural Resources, Forest Research Information  Paper 104. 27 p.
    77. Trimble, G. R., Jr. 1973. The regeneration of central  Appalachian hardwoods with emphasis on the effects of site  quality and harvesting practice. USDA Forest Service,  Research Paper NE-282. Northeastern Forest Experiment  Station, Broomall, PA. 14 p.
    79. Tryon, E. H., and R. P. True. 1964. Relative susceptibility  of Appalachian hardwood species to spring frosts occurring  after bud break. West Virginia Agricultural Experiment  Station, Bulletin 503. Morgantown. 15 p.
    81. Von Althen, F. W. 1971. Mouse damage in a 8-year-old  plantation. Forestry Chronicle 43:160-161.
    83. Von Althen, F. W. 1976. Effects of site preparation and  postplanting weed control on the survival and height growth  of planted hardwood seedlings. Canadian Department of  Forestry, Report O-X-248. Sault Ste. Marie, ON. 15 p.
    85. Von Althen, F. W. 1976. Fertilization at time of planting  fails to improve growth of hardwood seedlings. Canadian  Department of Forestry, Report O-X-249. Sault Ste. Marie,  ON. 13 p.
    87. Von Althen, F. W. 1977. Weed control with simazine  revitalizes growth in stagnating hardwood plantations.  Canadian Department of Forestry, Report O-X-261. Sault Ste.  Marie, ON. 20 p.
    89. Von Althen, F. W. 1981. Personal communication.
    91. Webb, D. P., and F. W. Von Althen. 1980. Storage of hardwood  planting stock: effects of various storage regimes and  packaging methods on root growth and physiological quality.  New Zealand Journal of Forestry 10:83-96.
    93. Wiebe, H. H. 1975. Photosynthesis in wood. Physiologia  Plantarum 33:245-246.
    95. Winget, C. H. 1964. Silvical studies of yellow birch and  associated species in Wisconsin. Thesis (Ph.D.). University  of Wisconsin, Madison. 172 p.
    97. Winget, C. H., and T. T. Kozlowski. 1964. Winter shrinkage  in stems of forest trees. Journal of Forestry 62:335-337. 


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