The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1996. database, The PLANTS Database
  • 1996. database, NODC Taxonomic Code
  • 2000. database, The PLANTS Database
  • 2007 - 2011. The International Plant Names Index (IPNI)
  • 2011. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN)
  • Anonymous. 1986. List-Based Rec., Soil Conserv. Serv., U.S.D.A. Database of the U.S.D.A., Beltsville.
  • Arbustrum Americanum 139–140. 1785. (Arbust. Amer.)
  • Correll, D. S. & M. C. Johnston. 1970. Man. Vasc. Pl. Texas i–xv, 1–1881. The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson.
  • Fernald, M. 1950. Manual (ed. 8) i–lxiv, 1–1632. American Book Co., New York.
  • Gleason, H. A. & A.J. Cronquist. 1991. Man. Vasc. Pl. N.E. U.S. (ed. 2) i–910. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx.
  • Godfrey, R. K. & J. W. Wooten. 1981. Aquatic Wetland Pl. S.E. U.S. Dicot. 1–944. Univ. Georgia Press, Athens.
  • Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Fl. Great Plains i–vii, 1–1392. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence.
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2015. Insect Visitors of Illinois Wildflowers.  World Wide Web electronic publication., version (09/2015) 
    See:   Abbreviations for Insect ActivitiesAbbreviations for Scientific ObserversReferences for behavioral observations
  • Histoire des Arbres Forestiers de l'Amerique Septentrionale 3: 226. 1812. (Hist. Arbr. Forest.)
  • Hultman, E. G. (1978). Trees, Shrubs and Flowers of the Midwest. 324. Chicago: Contemporary Books, Inc..
  • Image metadata at Bioimages ( External link.
  • Kartesz, J. T., & Biota_of_North_America_Program (2009). USDA PLANTS Profile: Salix nigra Marsh., Black willow.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2015). ITIS Regional: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Dec 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Peattie, D C. (1930). Flora of the Indiana dunes, a handbook of the flowering plants and ferns of the lake Michigan Coast of Indiana and of the Calumet District. 432 . Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History.
  • Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles & C. R. Bell. 1968. Man. Vasc. Fl. Carolinas i–lxi, 1–1183. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
  • Salicaceae of North America Update
  • Small, J. K. 1933. Man. S.E. Fl. i–xxii, 1–1554. Published by the Author, New York.
  • Trees and Shrubs 2(4): 216. 1913. (Trees & Shrubs)
  • University_of_Michigan_(Dearborn_Herbarium) (2009). Native American Ethnobotany: Salix nigra.
  • University_of_Wisconsin_Stevens_Point_Freckmann_Herbarium (2009). Salix nigra: UW-Stevens Point Freckmann Herbarium: Plant Details Page.
  • Weeks, S. S., Harmon P. Weeks J.., & Parker G. R. (2005). Native Trees of the Midwest: Identification, Wildlife Values, and Landscaping Use. West Lafayette: Purdue University Press.
  • Wunderlin, R. P. 1998. Guide Vasc. Pl. Florida i–x, 1–806. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.
    1. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United  States and Canada. Society of American Foresters,  Washington, DC. 148 p.
    3. Johnson, R. L., and J. S. McKnight. 1969. Benefits from  thinning black willow. USDA Forest Service, Research Note  SO-89. Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, LA.  6 p.
    5. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States  trees (native and naturalized). U.S. Department of  Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 541. Washington, DC. 375  p.
    7. McKnight, J. S. 1965. Black willow (Salix nigra Marsh.). In  Silvics of forest trees of the United States. p. 650-652. H.  A. Fowells, comp. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Agriculture Handbook 271. Washington, DC.
    9. McLeod, K. W., and J. K. McPherson. 1972. Factors limiting  the distribution of Salix nigra. Bulletin of the Torrey  Botanical Club 100(2):102-110.
    11. Randall, W. K. 1971. Willow clones differ in susceptibility  to cottonwood leaf beetle. In Proceedings, Eleventh Southern  Forest Tree Improvement Conference. Southern Forest Tree  Improvement Committee Sponsored Publication 33. p.  108-111. Eastern Tree Seed Laboratory, Macon, GA.
    13. Sakai, A., and C. J. Wiser. 1973. Freezing resistance of  trees in North America with reference to tree regions.  Ecology 54(l):118-126.
    15. Taylor, F. W. 1975. Wood property differences between two  stands of sycamore and black willow. Wood and Fiber  7(3):187-191.
    17. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs and woody vines of the  Southwest. University of Texas Press Austin 1104 p.


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