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2. Chenopodium capitatum (L.) Ambrosi
Figs 2B, 4B
Figs 2B, 4B
Ambrosi, FI. Tirolo Mer. 2: 180 (1857).
Sp. pi.: 4 (1753).
Type: Linnaean Herbarium 14.1 (LINN) lectotype, sei. by Jonsell & Jarvis, Regnum Veg. 127: 25 (1993) .
D PurpurrødJordbærspinat . F mykerösavikka .
N jordbærmelde . S smultronmålla .
Literature. Aronsson 1998.
Therophyte (summer-annual). Glabrous, cm. Stem subangular, yellowish, green-striped or sometimes red, fairly soft, erect to ascending, usually sparsely branched. Leaves fairly succulent. Lower leaves with up to 8 cm long petiole; blade triangular to hastate, 2-7(-11) cm, longer than wide, often with several coarse teeth. Middle leaves with shorter petiole and smaller blade. Bracts narrowly hastate to lanceolate, with entire margin.
Inflorescences spike-like, of sessile glomerules, leafy in the lower part only; bracts few, absent in the upper part of the inflorescence; glomerules compact, globose, 5-10(-15) mm thick. Flowers bisexual or female. Tepals 3-5, connate less than halfway, acute, persistent in fruit, becoming reddish violet and succulent, especially in inflorescences on the main axis and primary branches. Stamens 1-5. Stigmas 2, 0.2 mm. Nut with firmly adherent, thin pericarp; glomerules in fruit mulberry-like from the succulent tepals. Seed vertical, broadly ovate in outline, 0.6-1 mm; edge rounded or usually ± keeled; seed-coat blackish brown, dull, almost smooth or slightly striate. - Late summer.
Distribution. Not indigenous (see under Habitat). - D VJy Esbjerg 1929 (port), FyL Odense 1867, Sjce København numerous records 1887-1939, Snedinge 1876; LFM Nykøbing 1960. N old records from Ak Oslo 1840-92, Op Lillehammer 1864, 1896, Bu Kongsberg 1863, Vf Larvik 1855, Tjøme 1855 and ST Skaun 1935; only recent record Op Jevnaker 1977. S mainly old records: Sk at least Borgeby 1864, BhG Göteborg 1974 (from the botanic garden), Vg Stora Lundby 1908, Ög five 19th century records, Nrk Boo 1860's, Srm several localities, in Stockholm persisting 1850-92, Upl several localities, in Älvkarleby persisting 1836-76, Dir Grangärde 1957-58 and probably also 1985-86, Grycksbo 1854, Stora Kopparberg 1862-69, Gst Gävle 1895, Ovansjö 1855; in 1997 abundant at new roads (with grass-seed from Canada) in Bl Karlskrona, Kim Gårdveda , BhG Kville, Nödinge and Rödbo , Vg Fristad, Srm Kärnbo (Mariefred) and Upl Fröslunda , Harbo, Litslena och Östervåla , in 1998-99 also in Upl Odensala, Gst Ovansjö , His Bollnäs , Norrala and Söderhamn , �ng Bjurholm, and Nb (3 localities). Also recorded from S SmI, ///, Vsm and Jmt, but the specimens were probably cultivated. F casual or sometimes established for shorter periods; V Naantali 1940, Turku 1903-05, U Espoo 1887, Helsinki 1935, St Hämeenkyrö 1908-14, 1988, KP Kokkola 1862; OP Oulu 1991.
Fig. 4. Chenopodium . Leaves x 0.5. - A: C. foliosum (U). - B: C. capitatum (V). ILL. MARJA KOISTINEN
North America; early introduced to Europe, where it has often escaped from cultivation, but is probably not truly established.
Habitat. Formerly grown as a vegetable (for leaves and “berries” ) and as an ornamental. In the latter half of the 19th and the early 20th century a relatively rare
Chenopodium capitatumgarden escape and relic; a few recent records from gardens and tips, roadsides and waste ground due to germination of dormant seeds, or introduction with seed or grain.
Similar taxa. Chenopodium capitatum is similar to C. foliosum (1); for differences see the latter.