Range and Habitat in Illinois
Regularity: Regularly occurring
Catalog Number: US 332351
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): ex herb. Biltmore
Year Collected: 1897
Locality: Borders of woods and in open grounds, Biltmore, North Carolina., North Carolina, United States, North America
- Isotype: Petrak, F. 1917. Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 35 (Ab. 2): 401.
Range and Habitat in Illinois
Flower-Visiting Insects of Tall Thistle in Illinois
(bees collect pollen or suck nectar; flies and beetles feed on pollen; other insects suck nectar; some observations are from Robertson, otherwise they are from Graenicher and Macior as indicated below)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera sn cp (Rb, Gr); Apidae (Bombini): Bombus affinis sn (Gr), Bombus auricomus sn cp (Rb, Gr), Bombus fernaldae sn (Mc), Bombus fraternus sn (Rb), Bombus griseocallis sn (Gr), Bombus impatiens sn cp (Rb), Bombus pensylvanica sn cp fq (Rb, Gr), Bombus vagans sn cp (Rb, Gr), Psithyrus variabilis sn (Rb, Gr); Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina dupla dupla sn (Rb, Gr); Anthophoridae (Epeolini): Triepeolus donatus sn (Gr); Anthophoridae (Eucerini): Melissodes agilis sn (Rb), Melissodes desponsa sn cp fq olg (Rb, Gr), Melissodes trinodis sn (Gr), Svastra obliqua obliqua cp (Rb); Megachilidae (Coelioxini): Coelioxys rufitarsis rufitarsis sn (Gr); Megachilidae (Megachilini): Megachile latimanus sn cp (Gr); Megachilidae (Trypetini): Heriades leavitti sn cp np (Rb)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Agapostemon virescens sn, Lasioglossum connexus cp np (Gr), Lasioglossum imitatus cp np (Rb, Gr), Lasioglossum pilosus pilosus cp np (Gr), Lasioglossum zephyrus cp np (Gr); Halictidae (Nomiinae): Nomia nortoni nortoni (MH)
Syrphidae: Eristalis tenax fp (Gr), Eupeodes volucris fp (Gr)
Nymphalidae: Danaus plexippus (Gr), Limenitis archippus (Rb, Gr), Speyeria aphrodite alcestis (Gr), Speyeria cybele (Rb, Gr), Speyeria idalis (Gr), Vanessa atalanta (Rb), Vanessa virginiensis (Gr); Pieridae: Pieris rapae (Gr); Papilionidae: Papilio cresphontes (Rb), Papilio glaucus (Rb, Gr), Papilio polyxenes asterias (Gr), Papilio troilus (Rb)
Hesperiidae: Polites themistocles (Gr)
Sphingidae: Hemaris thysbe (Rb), Hyles lineata (Rb)
Chrysomelidae: Diabrotica undecimpunctata fp (Gr); Scarabaeidae (Cetonniae): Trichiotinus piger fp (Gr)
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Cirsium altissimum
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
National NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure
Natural hybrids between Cirsium altissimum and C. discolor are well documented (R. A. Davidson 1963; G. B. Ownbey and Hsi Y.-T. 1963; Ownbey 1964; S. Dabydeen 1997). Ownbey and Dabydeen both reported that apparent F1 hybrids between the two species have low seed set in comparison with the parental taxa. W. L. Bloom (1977) reported that the chromosomes of the two species differ by several rearareaments. Dabydeen reported a count of 2n = 19 with multiple meiotic irregularities for an apparent F1 hybrid. However, the presence of numerous individuals and populations seemingly intermediate between C. altissimum and C. discolor indicates that although F1 hybrids have low fertility, long-term processes may have stabilized hybrid derivatives of higher fertility. Ownbey and Hsi reported mitotic counts of 2n = 18 and 20 from a population that they treated as C. altissimum. In their discussion they noted that their plants represented "the segregate called C. iowense" and had been collected a short distance from that taxon’s type locality. R. J. Moore and C. Frankton (1969) reported a chromosome number of 2n = 18 for a plant from Texas that they considered to be C. iowense. Further investigation of morphologic variation, chromosome number, meiotic behavior, and fertility is needed of populations named as C. iowense to determine how those plants should be treated.
Names and Taxonomy
Comments: For Cirsium altissimum, FNA (vol. 19, 2006) and Kartesz (1999) have author "(L.) Spreng.". Kartesz (1994), ITIS, and IPNI (as of Jan. 2014) have "(L.) Hill". Reason for the discrepancy is not documented in any of these sources.
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