The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Anderson WD, Eversole AG, Anderson BA and KB Van Sant. 1985. A biological evaluation of the knobbed whelk fishery in South Carolina. National Marine Fisheries Service Publication. 2-392-R 76 pp.
  • Anderson WD. 2005 Busycon carica. Comprehensive Wildlife Conservation Strategy; SC Department of Natural Resources. Available online as a pdf file.
  • Bouchet P.,Gofas S. & Rosenberg G. (2013). WoRMS Mollusca: World Marine Mollusca database (version Feb 2013). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Bruce DG. 2006. The whelk dredge fishery of Delaware. Journal of Shellfish Research 25:1-13.
  • Carriker MR. 1951. Observations on the penetration of tightly closing bivalves by Busycon and other predators. Ecology. 32(1):73-83.
  • Castagna M and JN Kraeuter. 1994. Age, growth rate, sexual dimorphism and fecundity of knobbed whelk Busycon carica(Gmelin,1791) in a western Mid-Atlantic lagoon system, Virginia. Journal of Shellfish Research. 2(2): 581-585.
  • Fraussen K. 2010. Buccinidae checklist. Pers. Com.
  • Fraussen, K.; Rosenberg, G. (2015). Busycon carica (Gmelin, 1791). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • Hardy's Internet Guide to Marine Gastropods. Available online.
  • ITIS database
  • Magalhaes H. 1948. An ecological study of the genus Busycon at Beaufort, North Carolina. Ecological Monographs. 18(3): 377-409.
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
  • Pollock, L.W. 1998. A practical guide to the marine animals of northeastern North America. Rutgers University Press. New Brunswick, New Jersey & London. 367 pp.
  • Ram JL. 1977. Hormonal control of reproduction in Busycon: Laying of egg capsules caused by nervous system extracts. Marine Biological Laboratory. Biol. Bull., 152: 221-232.
  • Rosenberg, G. 2004. Malacolog Version 3.3.2: Western Atlantic gastropod database. The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA.
  • The Georgia Shell Club Whelk Page. Available online.
  • Turgeon, D. D., A. E. Bogan, E. V. Coan, W. K. Emerson, W. G. Lyons, W. Pratt, et al. 1988. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: mollusks. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 16. vii + 277
  • Turgeon, D. D., J. F. Quinn, Jr., A. E. Bogan, E. V. Coan, F. G. Hochberg, W. G. Lyons, et al. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks, 2nd ed. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26. 526


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