The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


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  • 11. Chen, Ming-Yih; Hodgkins, Earl J.; Watson, W. J. 1975. Prescribed burning for improving pine production and wildlife habitat in the hilly coastal plain of Alabama. Bull. No. 473. Auburn, AL: Auburn University Agricultural Experiment Station. 19 p. [9909]
  • 12. Clatterbuck, Wayne K. 1989. Even-aged mixtures of cherrybark oak and loblolly pine in southwestern Arkansas. In: Waldrop, Thomas A., ed. Proceedings of pine-hardwood mixtures: a symposium on management and ecology of the type; 1989 April 18-19; Atlanta, GA. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-58. Asheville, SC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station: 123-127. [10268]
  • 13. Dickson, James G.; Conner, Richard N.; Williamson, J. Howard. 1983. Snag retention increases bird use of a clear-cut. Journal of Wildlife Management. 47(3): 799-804. [13855]
  • 14. Duncan, Wilbur H.; Duncan, Marion B. 1987. The Smithsonian guide to seaside plants of the Gulf and Atlantic Coasts from Louisiana to Massachusetts, exclusive of lower peninsular Florida. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. 409 p. [12906]
  • 16. Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. [Corrections supplied by R. C. Rollins]
  • 18. Godfrey, Robert K. 1988. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of northern Florida and adjacent Georgia and Alabama. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 734 p. [10239]
  • 19. Harlow, Richard F.; Shrauder, Paul A.; Seehorn, Monte E. 1975. Deer browse resources of the Oconee National Forest. Res. Pap. SE-137. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station. 16 p. [14602]
  • 1996. database, The PLANTS Database
  • 1996. database, NODC Taxonomic Code
  • 2. Allen, James A.; Kennedy, Harvey E., Jr. 1989. Bottomland hardwood reforestation in the lower Mississippi Valley. Slidell, LA: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, National Wetlands Research Center; Stoneville, MS: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experimental Station. 28 p. [15293]
  • 20. Hartnett, David C.; Krofta, Douglas M. 1989. Fifty-five years of post-fire succession in a southern mixed hardwood forest. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 116(2): 107-113. [9153]
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  • 22. Hunt, Ron; Cleveland, Glenn. 1978. Cultural treatments affect growth, volume, and survival of sweetgum, sycamore, and loblolly pine. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry. 2(2): 55-59. [10633]
  • 23. Kaufert, F. H. 1933. Fire and decay injury in the Southern bottomland hardwoods. Journal of Forestry. 31: 64-67. [2694]
  • 24. Kormanik, Paul P. 1990. Liquidambar styraciflua L. sweetgum. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Vol. 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 400-405. [17401]
  • 25. Kormanik, P. P.; Ruehle, J. L. 1987. Lateral root development may define nursery seedling quality. In: Phillips, Douglas R., compiler. Proceedings. 4th biennial southern silvicultural research conference; 1986 November 4-6; Atlanta, GA. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-42. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station: 225-229. [4199]
  • 27. Lay, Daniel W. 1957. Browse quality and the effects of prescribed burning in southern pine forests. Journal of Forestry. 55: 342-347. [7633]
  • 28. Lea, Russ; Frederick, D. J. 1990. Bottomland hardwood restoration in the southeastern United States. In: Hughes, H. Glenn; Bonnicksen, Thomas M., eds. Restoration `89: the new management challenge: Proceedings, 1st annual meeting of the Society for Ecological Restoration; 1989 January 16-20; Oakland, CA. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Arboretum, Society for Ecological Restoration: 292-300. [14706]
  • 29. Limstrom, G. A.; Merz, R. W. 1949. Rehabilitation of lands stripped for coal in Ohio. Tech. Pap. No. 113. Columbus, OH: The Ohio Reclamation Association. 41 p. In cooperation with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Central States Forest Experiment Station. [4427]
  • 3. Andersen, C. P.; Bussler, B. H.; Chaney, W. R.; [and others]
  • 30. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agric. Handb. 541. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 375 p. [2952]
  • 31. Lotti, Thomas; Klawitter, Ralph A.; LeGrande, W. P. 1960. Prescribed burning for understory control in loblolly pine stands of the coastal plain. Station Pap. No. 116. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station. 19 p. [15417]
  • 33. Martin, Alexander C.; Zim, Herbert S.; Nelson, Arnold L. 1951. American wildlife and plants. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. 500 p. [4021]
  • 34. McGarity, R. W. 1979. Young sweetgum responds to early merchantable thinning. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry. 3(4): 157-160. [10617]
  • 35. McLemore, B. F.; Cain, M. D. 1988. A test of basal sprays for controlling hardwood brush and trees. In: Environmental legislation and its effect on weed science: Proceedings, 41st annual meeting Southern Weed Science Soc; 1988 January 18-20; Tulsa, OK. Volume 41. [Place of publication unknown]
  • 36. Miller, James H. 1990. Streamline basal application of herbicide for small-stem hardwood control. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry. 14(4): 161-165. [13538]
  • 37. Millers, Imants; Shriner, David S.; Rizzo, David. 1989. History of hardwood decline in the eastern United States. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-126. Bromall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 75 p. [10925]
  • 38. Paton, Robert R.; Secrest, Edmund; Ezri, Harold A. 1944. Ohio forest plantings. Bull. 647. Wooster, OH: Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station. 77 p. [6974]
  • 39. Powell, Susan W.; Day, Frank P., Jr. 1991. Root production in four communities in the Great Dismal Swamp. American Journal of Botany. 78(2): 288-297. [14595]
  • 4. Belcher, Earl W., Jr.; Hitt, Robert G. 1965. Eastern Tree Seed Laboratory: 12th annual report, fiscal year 1965. Macon, GA: Eastern Tree Seed Laboratory. 66 p. In cooperation with: Region 8 and the Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, U.S. Forest Service; Georgia Forestry Commission and Georgia Forest Research Council. [6522]
  • 41. Riebold, R. J. 1955. Summer burns for hardwoods control in loblolly pine. Fire Control Notes. 16(1): 34-35. [11602]
  • 42. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1956. Wood...colors and kinds. Agric. Handb. 101. Washington, DC. 36 p. [16294]
  • 44. Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States, their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 362 p. [4240]
  • 45. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p. [7707]
  • 46. Vogel, Willis G. 1981. A guide for revegetating coal minespoils in the eastern United States. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-68. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 190 p. [15577]
  • 47. Waldrop, Thomas A.; Lloyd, F. Thomas. 1991. Forty years of prescribed burning on the Santee fire plots: effects on overstory and midstory vegetation. In: Nodvin, Stephen C.; Waldrop, Thomas A., eds. Fire and the environment: ecological and cultural perspectives: Proceedings of an international symposium; 1990 March 20-24; Knoxville, TN. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-69. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station: 45-50. [16632]
  • 48. Waldrop, Thomas A.; Van Lear, David H.; Lloyd, F. Thomas; Harms, William R. 1987. Long-term studies of prescribed burning in loblolly pine forests of the Southeastern Coastal Plain. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-45. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station. 23 p. [11596]
  • 49. Wenger, Karl F. 1953. The sprouting of sweetgum in relation to season of cutting and carbohydrate content. Plant Physiology. 28: 35-49. [13819]
  • 5. Blair, Robert M.; Short, Henry L.; Epps, E. A., Jr. 1977. Seasonal nutrient yield and digestibility of deer forage from a young pine plantation. Journal of Wildlife Management. 41(4): 667-676. [16963]
  • 50. St. John, Harold. 1973. List and summary of the flowering plants in the Hawaiian islands. Hong Kong: Cathay Press Limited. 519 p. [25354]
  • 6. Bonner, F. T. 1974. Liquidambar styraciflua L. sweetgum. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., ed. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agriculture Handbook No. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 505-507. [7695]
  • 7. Borthwick, H. A. 1957. Light effects on tree growth and seed germination. A symposium on forest tree physiology; 1957 June 13-14; Wooster, OH. In: The Ohio Journal of Science; 57(6): 357-364. [10162]
  • 8. Brothers, Timothy S. 1988. Indiana surface-mine forests: historical development and composition of a human-created vegetation complex. Southeastern Geographer. 28(1): 19-33. [8787]
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  • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha. 2000. Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 85: i–ix, 1–246.
  • Berendsohn, W.G., A. K. Gruber & J. A. Monterrosa Salomón. 2009. Nova Silva Cuscatlanica. Árboles nativos e introducidos de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae - Familias A a L. Englera 29(1): 1–438.
  • Breedlove, D.E. 1986. Flora de Chiapas. Listados Floríst. México 4: i–v, 1–246.
  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp. External link.
  • CONABIO. 2009. Catálogo taxonómico de especies de México. 1. In Capital Nat. México. CONABIO, Mexico City.
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  • Fernald, M. 1950. Manual (ed. 8) i–lxiv, 1–1632. American Book Co., New York.
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  • Long, R. W. & O. K. Lakela. 1971. Fl. Trop. Florida i–xvii, 1–962. University of Miami Press, Coral Cables.
  • Marticorena C & R Rodríguez . 1995-2005. Flora de Chile. Vols 1, 2(1-3). Ed. Universidad de Concepción, Concepción. 351 pp., 99 pp., 93 pp., 128 pp. Matthei O. 1995. Manual de las malezas que crecen en Chile. Alfabeta Impresores. 545 p.
  • Molina Rosito, A. 1975. Enumeración de las plantas de Honduras. Ceiba 19(1): 1–118.
  • Nelson, C. H. 2008. Cat. Pl. Vasc. Honduras 1–1576.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2013). ITIS Regional: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Apr 2011). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
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  • Standley, P. C. & J. A. Steyermark. 1946. Hamamelidaceae. In Standley, P.C. & Steyermark, J.A. (Eds), Flora of Guatemal a - Part IV. Fieldiana, Bot. 24(4): 426–430.
  • Stevens, W. D., C. Ulloa Ulloa, A. Pool & O. M. Montiel. 2001. Flora de Nicaragua. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 85: i–xlii,.
  • Thornhill, Robert, Krings, Alexander, Lindbo, David, Stucky, Jon (2014): Guide to the Vascular Flora of the Savannas and Flatwoods of Shaken Creek Preserve and Vicinity (Pender & Onslow Counties, North Carolina, U. S. A.). Biodiversity Data Journal 2, 1099: 1099-1099, URL:
  • Wunderlin, R. P. 1998. Guide Vasc. Pl. Florida i–x, 1–806. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.
    1. Baker, Whiteford L. 1972. Eastern forest insects. U.S.  Department of Agriculture, Miscellaneous Publication 1175.  Washington, DC. 642 p.
    3. Belanger, R. P., and R. G. McAlpine. 1975. Survival and  early growth of planted sweetgum related to root-collar  diameter. Tree Planters'Notes 26:1, 21.
    5. Berry, C. R. 1981. Sewage sludge aids reclamation of  disturbed forest land in the Southeast. p. 307-316. In  Proceedings, Utilization of Municipal Waste Water and  Sludge for Land Reclamation and Biomass Production,  September 1980, Pittsburgh, PA. Environmental Protection  Agency, Washington, DC.
    7. DeBell, D. S., 0. G. Langdon, and J. Stubbs. 1968.  Reproducing mixed hardwoods by a seed-tree cutting in the  Carolina Coastal Plain. Southern Lumberman 217:121-123. 
    9. Ebel, B. H., and P. P. Kormanik. Stictocephala  militaris, a membracid (Homoptera) associated with  sweetgum, Liquidambar styraciflua. Annals of the  Entomological Society of America 59:600-601.
    11. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United  States and Canada. Society of American Foresters,  Washington, DC. 148 p.
    13. Hook, D. D., P. P. Kormanik, and C. L. Brown. 1970. Early  development of sweetgum root sprouts in Coastal South  Carolina. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper SE-62.  Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, Asheville, NC. 6 p. 
    15. Hepting, George H. 1971. Diseases of forest and shade trees  of the United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Agriculture Handbook 386. Washington, DC. 658 p.
    17. Kormanik, P. P. 1980. Effects of nursery practices on VA  mycorrhizal development and hardwood seedling production.  In Proceedings, Southern Nursery Conference,  September 1980, Lake Barkley, KY. p. 63-67. Kentucky  Division of Forestry and USDA Forest Service, Southeastern  Area, State and Private Forestry, Atlanta, GA.
    19. Kormanik, P. P. 1986. Lateral root morphology as an  expression of sweetgum seedling quality. Forest Science  32:595-604.
    21. Kormanik, P. P., and C. L. Brown. 1967. Root buds and the  development of root suckers in sweetgum. Forest Science  13:338-345.
    23. Kormanik, P. P., and C. L. Brown. 1969. Origin and  development of epicormic branches in sweetgum. USDA Forest  Service, Research Paper SE-54. Southeastern Forest  Experiment Station, Asheville, NC. 17 p.
    25. Kormanik, P. P., W. C. Bryan, and R. C. Schultz. 1977.  Influence of endomycorrhizae on growth of sweetgum seedlings  from eight mother trees. Forest Science 23:500-509.
    27. Kormanik, P. P., W. C. Bryan, and R. C. Schultz. 1977.  Quality hardwood seedlings require early mycorrhizal  development in nursery beds. Proceedings, Fourteenth  Southeastern Forest Tree Improvement Conference. p. 289-293. 
    29. Kormanik, P. P., W. C. Bryan, and R. C. Schultz. 1981.  Effects of three vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on  sweetgum seedlings from nine mother trees. Forest Science  27:327-335.
    31. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1965.  Silvics of forest trees of the United States. H. A. Fowells,  comp. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook  271. Washington, DC. 762 p.
    33. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1974. Seeds  of woody plants in the United States. C. S. Schopmeyer,  tech. coord. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture  Handbook 450. Washington, DC. 883 p.
    35. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1974. Wood  handbook: wood as an engineering material. p. 1-12. U.S.  Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 72, rev.  Washington, DC.
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