The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1996. database, The PLANTS Database
  • 1996. database, NODC Taxonomic Code
  • 2000. database, The PLANTS Database
  • Anonymous. 1986. List-Based Rec., Soil Conserv. Serv., U.S.D.A. Database of the U.S.D.A., Beltsville.
  • Correll, D. S. & M. C. Johnston. 1970. Man. Vasc. Pl. Texas i–xv, 1–1881. The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson.
  • Fernald, M. 1950. Manual (ed. 8) i–lxiv, 1–1632. American Book Co., New York.
  • Gleason, H. A. & A.J. Cronquist. 1991. Man. Vasc. Pl. N.E. U.S. (ed. 2) i–910. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx.
  • Gonzalez ER, P Haye, MJ Balanda & M Thiel . 2008. Lista sistematica de especies de peracaridos de Chile (Crustaceae, Eumalacostraca). Gayana (Chile) 72: 157-1777.
  • Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Fl. Great Plains i–vii, 1–1392. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence.
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2015. Insect Visitors of Illinois Wildflowers.  World Wide Web electronic publication., version (09/2015) 
    See:   Abbreviations for Insect ActivitiesAbbreviations for Scientific ObserversReferences for behavioral observations
  • Image metadata at Bioimages ( External link.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2015). ITIS Regional: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Dec 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles & C. R. Bell. 1968. Man. Vasc. Fl. Carolinas i–lxi, 1–1183. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
  • Schwegman, J. E. 1991. The Vascular Flora of Langham Island, Kankakee County, Illinois. Erigenia 11: 1–8.
  • Sherman-Broyles, S. L. 1992. Ulmaceae, Genus Ulmus. 26 pp.
  • Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 5: 169. 1793. (Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc.)
  • Ulmaceae and Cannabaceae of North America Update
  • Wunderlin, R. P. 1998. Guide Vasc. Pl. Florida i–x, 1–806. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.
    1. Baker, Whiteford L. 1972. Eastern forest insects. U.S.  Department of Agriculture, Miscellaneous Publication 1175.  Washington, DC. 642 p.
    3. Brinkman, Kenneth A. 1974. Ulmus L. Elm. In Seeds of woody  plants in the United States. p. 829-834. C. S. Schopmeyer,  tech. coord. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture  Handbook 450. Washington, DC.
    5. Bruederle, L. P., and F. W. Stearns. 1985. Ice storm damage  to a southern Wisconsin mesic forest. Bulletin of the Torrey  Botanical Club 112(2):167-175.
    7. Ebinger, John E. 1973. Coppice forest in east-central  Illinois. Castanea 38(2):152-163.
    9. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United  States and Canada. Society of American Foresters,  Washington, DC. 143 p.
    11. Hepting, George H. 1971. Diseases of forest and shade trees  of the United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Agriculture Handbook 386. Washington, DC. 658 p.
    13. Lester, D. T., and E. B. Smalley. 1972. Response of  backcross hybrids and three-species combinations of Ulmus  pumila, U. japonica and U. rubra  to inoculation with Ceratocystis ulmi.  Phytopathology 62(8):845-848.
    15. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United  States trees (native and naturalized). U.S. Department of  Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 541. Washington,  DC. 375 p.
    17. Michael, E. D. 1987. Bark stripping by white-tailed  deer in West Virginia. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry  4(2):9697.
    19. Santamour, Frank S., Jr. 1972. Interspecific hybridization  with fall- and spring-flowering elms. Forest Science  18(4):283-289.
    21. Scholz, Harold F. 1958. Slippery elm (Ulmus rubra  Muhl.). In Silvics of forest trees of the United  States. p. 736-739. H. A. Fowells, comp. U.S. Department of  Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 271. Washington, DC.
    23. Schuster, W. S., and R. J. Hutnik. 1987. Community  development on 35-year-old planted minespoil banks in  Pennsylvania. Reclamation and Revegetation Research  6(2)109-120.
    25. Sherman, S. L., and D. E. Giannasi. 1988. Foliar flavonoids  of Ulmus in eastern North America. Biochemical Systematics  and Ecology 16(l):51-56.


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