The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1996. database, The PLANTS Database
  • 1996. database, NODC Taxonomic Code
  • 2000. database, The PLANTS Database
  • Anonymous. 1986. List-Based Rec., Soil Conserv. Serv., U.S.D.A. Database of the U.S.D.A., Beltsville.
  • Correll, D. S. & M. C. Johnston. 1970. Man. Vasc. Pl. Texas i–xv, 1–1881. The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson.
  • Godfrey, R. K. & J. W. Wooten. 1981. Aquatic Wetland Pl. S.E. U.S. Dicot. 1–944. Univ. Georgia Press, Athens.
  • Holotype: Muller, C. H. 1942. Amer. Midl. Naturalist. 27: 483.
  • Isotype: Muller, C. H. 1942. Amer. Midl. Naturalist. 27: 483.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2015). ITIS Regional: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Dec 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Sherman-Broyles, S. L. 1992. Ulmaceae, Genus Ulmus. 26 pp.
  • Small, J. K. 1933. Man. S.E. Fl. i–xxii, 1–1554. Published by the Author, New York.
  • Todzia, C. A. & J. L. Panero. 1998. A new species of Ulmus (Ulmaceae) from southern Mexico and a synopsis of the species in Mexico. Brittonia 50(3): 343–347.
  • Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, new series 5(6[2]): 169. 1837[1835]. (Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc., n.s.)
  • Ulmaceae and Cannabaceae of North America Update
  • Wunderlin, R. P. 1998. Guide Vasc. Pl. Florida i–x, 1–806. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.
    1. Baker, Whiteford L. 1972. Eastern forest insects. U.S.  Department of Agriculture, Forest Service Miscellaneous  Publication 1175. Washington, DC. 642 p.
    3. Bray, W. L. 1904. Forest resources of Texas. U.S.  Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Forestry, Bulletin 47.  Washington, DC. 71 p.
    5. Bull, Henry. 1945. Diameter growth of southern bottomland  hardwoods. Journal of Forestry 43:326-327.
    7. Dohr, A. W. 1953. Southern hard elm strength properties  compare favorable with rock elm. Southern Lumberman  187:187-188.
    9. Elias, Thomas S. 1970. The genera of Ulmaceae in the  Southeastern United States. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum  51:18-30.
    11. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United  States and Canada. Society of American Foresters,  Washington, DC. 148 p.
    13. Filer, T. H., Jr. 1973. Suppression of elm phloem necrosis  symptoms with tetracycline antibiotics. Plant Disease  Reporter 57(4):341-343.
    15. Filer, T. H., F. I. McCracken, and E. R. Toole. 1968.  Cephalosporium wilt of elm in lower Mississippi Valley.  Plant Disease Reporter 52(2):170-171.
    17. Hepting, George H. 1971. Diseases of forest and shade trees  of the United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Agriculture Handbook 386. Washington, DC. 658 p.
    19. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States  trees (native and naturalized). U.S. Department of  Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 541. Washington, DC. 375  p.
    21. Marion, W. T. 1976. Plain chachalaca food habits in south  Texas. Auk 93:376-379.
    23. Martin, A. C., H. S. Zim, and A. L. Nelson. 1951. American  wildlife and plants. McGraw-Hill, New York. 500 p.
    25. McKee, H. C., and F. W. Bieberdorf. 1960. Vegetation  symptoms as a measure of air pollution. Journal of the Air  Pollution Control Association 10(3):222-225.
    27. Santamour, Frank S., Jr. 1973. Resistance to Dutch elm  disease in Chinese elm hybrids. Plant Disease Reporter  57(12):997-999.
    29. Sargent, Charles Sprague. 1891-1902. The silva of North  America. Reprinted 1947. vol. 8:57-58. Peter Smith,  Gloucester, MA.
    31. Seikel, M. K., F. D. Hostettler, and D. B. Johnson. 1968.  Lignans of Ulmus thomasii heartwood. I. Thomasic  acid. Tetrahedron 24(3):1475-1488.
    33. U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1941. Climate and man. U.S.  Department of Agriculture, Yearbook of Agriculture 1941.  Washington, DC. 1248 p.
    35. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1974. Wood  handbook: wood as an engineering material. U.S. Department  of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 72, rev. Washington,  DC. 433 p.
    37. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1974. Seeds  of woody plants in the United States. C. S. Schopmeyer,  tech. coord. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture  Handbook 450. Washington, DC. 883 p.
    39. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the  Southwest. University of Texas Press, Austin. 1104 p.
    41. Whitcomb, C. E. 1978. Know it and grow it: a guide to the  identification and use of landscape plants in the Southern  States. 3d rev. Oil Capitol Printing, Tulsa, OK. 500 p. 


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