The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1. Abrams, Marc D. 1986. Ecological role of fire in gallery forests in eastern Kansas. In: Koonce, Andrea L., ed. Prescribed burning in the Midwest: state-of-the-art: Proceedings of a symposium; 1986 March 3-6; Stevens Point, WI. Stevens Point, WI: University of Wisconsin, College of Natural Resources, Fire Science Center: 73-80. [16271]
  • 10. Cram, W. H.; Lindquist, C. H.; Thompson, A. C. 1966. Seed viability studies: American and Siberian elm. Summer Report Tree Nursery Saskatchewan. 1965: 8-9. [6561]
  • 11. Daubenmire, Rexford F. 1936. The "big woods" of Minnesota: its structure, and relation to climate, fire, and soils. Ecological Monographs. 6(2): 233-268. [2697]
  • 12. Daubenmire, R. F. 1949. Relation of temperature and daylength to the inception of tree growth in spring. Botanical Gazette. 110: 464-475. [12757]
  • 13. Dickinson Press. 1989. Plant life recovering on 5,400 acres burned in '88, Little Missouri Grasslands, Medora (ND) RD, Custer NF. No. 998. 1690 Northern Region Information Digest. [Prepared each week by the Information Office]. Page 2. [8460]
  • 14. Doran, William L. 1941. The propagation of some trees and shrubs by cuttings. Bulletin No. 382. Amherst, MA: Massachusetts State College, Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station. 56 p. [20255]
  • 15. Duncan, Wilbur H.; Duncan, Marion B. 1988. Trees of the southeastern United States. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 322 p. [12764]
  • 16. Dunn, Christopher P. 1986. Shrub layer response to death of Ulmus americana in southeastern Wisconsin lowland forests. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 113(2): 142-148. [4793]
  • 17. Ebinger, John E.; McClain, William E. 1991. Naturalized amur maple (Acer ginnata Maxim.) in Illinois. Natural Areas Journal. 11(3): 170-171. [15249]
  • 19. Fahey, Timothy J.; Reiners, William A. 1981. Fire in the forests of Maine and New Hampshire. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 108: 362-373. [9707]
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  • 1996. database, The PLANTS Database
  • 2. Ager, Alan A.; Guries, Raymond P. 1982. Barriers to interspecific hybridization in Ulmus americana. Euphytica. 31: 909-920. [4966]
  • 20. Fennell, Norman H.; Hutnik, Russell J. 1970. Ecological effects of forest fires. Unpublished paper on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 84 p. [16873]
  • 2000. database, The PLANTS Database
  • 21. Francis, John K. 1987. Regrowth after complete harvest of a young bottomland hardwood stand. In: Phillips, Douglas R., compiler. Proceedings, 4th biennial southern silvicultural research conference; 1986 November 4-6; Atlanta, GA. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-42. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station: 120-128. [4200]
  • 23. George, Ernest J. 1937. Storage and dewinging of American elm seed. Journal of Forestry. 35(8): 769-772. [3713]
  • 24. George, James F.; Powell, Jeff. 1977. Deer browsing and browse production of fertilized American elm sprouts. Journal of Range Management. 30(5): 357-360. [4971]
  • 25. George, Ronnie R.; Farris, Allen L.; Schwartz, Charles C.; [and others]. 1978. Effects of controlled burning on selected upland habitats in southern Iowa. Iowa Wildlife Research Bulletin No. 25. Des Moines, IA: Iowa Conservation Commission Wildlife Section. 38 p. [4422]
  • 26. Gilmer, David S.; Ball, I. J.; Cowardin, Lewis M.; [and others]. 1978. Natural cavities used by wood ducks in north-central Minnesota. Journal of Wildlife Management. 42(2): 288-298. [13749]
  • 27. Godfrey, Robert K. 1988. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of northern Florida and adjacent Georgia and Alabama. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 734 p. [10239]
  • 28. Godman, Richard M.; Mattson, Gilbert A. 1976. Seed crops and regeneration problems of 19 species in northeastern Wisconsin. Res. Pap. NC-123. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station. 5 p. [3715]
  • 29. Guilkey, Paul C. 1957. Silvical characteristics of...American elm (Ulmus americana). Station Paper No. 54. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Lake States Forest Experiment Station. 19 p. [5509]
  • 3. Ahlgren, C. E. 1957. Phenological observations of nineteen native tree species in northeastern Minnesota. Ecology. 38(4): 622-628. [74]
  • 30. Hardin, Kimberly I.; Evans, Keith E. 1977. Cavity nesting bird habitat in the oak-hickory forests--a review. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-30. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station. 23 p. [13859]
  • 31. Helgerson, Ole T. 1990. Heat damage in tree seedlings and its prevention. New Forests. 3: 333-358. [14771]
  • 32. Kittredge, J., Jr. 1934. Evidence of the rate of forest succession on Star Island, Minnesota. Ecology. 15(1): 24-35. [10102]
  • 33. Kucera, C. L.; Ehrenreich, John H. 1962. Some effects of annual burning on central Missouri prairie. Ecology. 43(2): 334-336. [1382]
  • 35. Lester, D. T.; Lee, M. J. T. 1974. Twins and triplets of American elm. Forest Science. 20(2): 142. [4927]
  • 36. Lyon, L. Jack; Stickney, Peter F. 1976. Early vegetal succession following large northern Rocky Mountain wildfires. In: Proceedings, Tall Timbers fire ecology conference and Intermountain Fire Research Council fire and land management symposium; 1974 October 8-10; Missoula, MT. No. 14. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 355-373. [1496]
  • 38. Manci, Karen M. 1989. Riparian ecosystem creation and restoration: a literature summary. Biol. Rep.89(20). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 60 p. [11757]
  • 39. McBride, Joe. 1973. Natural replacement of disease-killed elms. The American Midland Naturalist. 90(2): 300-306. [8868]
  • 4. Barnes, William J.; Dibble, Eric. 1988. The effects of beaver in riverbank forest succession. Canadian Journal of Botany. 66: 40-44. [2762]
  • 40. McMurphy, Wilfred E.; Anderson, Kling L. 1965. Burning Flint Hills range. Journal of Range Management. 18: 265-269. [30]
  • 41. Hibbert, Alden R.; Ingebo, Paul A. 1971. Chaparral treatment effects on streamflow. In: Arizona watershed symposium proceedings 15: 25-34. [5501]
  • 42. Vander Kloet, S. P. 1989. Typification of some North American Vaccinium species names. Taxon. 38: 129-134. [8918]
  • 43. Newsome, R. D.; Kozlowski, T. T.; Tang, Z. C. 1982. Responses of Ulmus americana seedlings to flooding of soil. Canadian Journal of Botany. 60: 1688-1695. [5561]
  • 44. Ontario Department of Lands and Forests. 1953. Forest tree planting. 2d ed. Bull. No. R 1. Toronto, Canada: Ontario Department of Lands and Forests, Division of Reforestation. 68 p. [12130]
  • 46. Streng, Donna R.; Glitzenstein, Jeff S.; Harcombe, P. A. 1989. Woody seedling dynamics in an east Texas floodplain forest. Ecological Monographs. 59(2): 177-204. [6894]
  • 47. Sturgeon, R. V., Jr.; Morrison, Lou S.; Conway, Kenneth E. 1978. Dutch elm disease control. OSU Extension Facts No. 7602. Stillwater, OK: Oklahoma State University, Cooperative Extension Service. 2 p. [4858]
  • 48. Swingle, Roger U. 1942. Phloem necrosis: A virus disease of the American elm. Circular No. 640. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 8 p. [4761]
  • 49. Terres, J. Kenneth. 1939. Gray squirrel utilization of elm. Journal of Wildlife Management. 3(4): 358-359. [6440]
  • 5. Bey, Calvin F. 1990. Ulmus americana L. American elm. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., tech. coords. Agric. Handb. 654. Silvics of North America. Vol. 2. Hardwoods. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 801-807. [18959]
  • 50. Twight, Peter A.; Minckler, Leon S. 1972. Ecological forestry for the Northern hardwood forest. Washington, DC: National Parks and Conservation Association. 12 p. [3508]
  • 51. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory. 1974. Wood handbook: wood as an engineering material. Agric. Handb. No. 72. Washington, DC. 415 p. [16826]
  • 53. Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States, their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 362 p. [4240]
  • 54. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p. [7707]
  • 55. Wheeler, E. A.; LaPasha, C. A.; Miller, R. B. 1989. Wood anatomy of elm (Ulmus) and hackberry (Celtis) species native to the United States. International Association of Wood Anatomy Bulletin. 10(1): 5-26. [11552]
  • 56. Yeager, A. F. 1935. Root systems of certain trees and shrubs grown on prairie soils. Journal of Agricultural Research. 51(12): 1085-1092. [3748]
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  • 7. Brinkman, Kenneth A. 1974. Ulmus L. Elm. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., ed. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agriculture Handbook No. 450. Washington: U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 829-834. [7772]
  • 8. Brundrett, Mark; Murase, Gracia; Kendrick, Bryce. 1990. Comparative anatomy of roots and mycorrhizae of common Ontario trees. Canadian Journal of Botany. 68: 551-578. [11380]
  • 9. Collingwood, G. H. 1937. Knowing your trees. Washington, DC: The American Forestry Association. 213 p. [6316]
  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp. External link.
  • Coladonato, M. (1992). USDA FEIS: Ulmus americana.
  • Correll, D. S. & M. C. Johnston. 1970. Man. Vasc. Pl. Texas i–xv, 1–1881. The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson.
  • Edward F. Gilman, Dennis G. Watson. US Forest Service Southern Group of State Foresters, US Department of Agriculture. Ulmus americana. Accessed 11 May 2012
  • Gleason, H. A. & A.J. Cronquist. 1991. Man. Vasc. Pl. N.E. U.S. (ed. 2) i–910. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx.
  • Godfrey, R. K. & J. W. Wooten. 1981. Aquatic Wetland Pl. S.E. U.S. Dicot. 1–944. Univ. Georgia Press, Athens.
  • Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Fl. Great Plains i–vii, 1–1392. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence.
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2014. Illinois Wildflowers. World Wide Web electronic publication., version 06/2014.
    See: Botanical Terminology and Line DrawingsEcological TerminologyWebsite DescriptionLinks to Other WebsitesReference Materials
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2015. Insect Visitors of Illinois Wildflowers.  World Wide Web electronic publication., version (03/2015) 
    See:   Abbreviations for Insect ActivitiesAbbreviations for Scientific ObserversReferences for behavioral observations
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  • Image metadata at Bioimages ( External link.
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  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2013). ITIS Regional: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Apr 2011). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Peattie, D C. (1930). Flora of the Indiana dunes, a handbook of the flowering plants and ferns of the lake Michigan Coast of Indiana and of the Calumet District. 432 . Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History.
  • Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles & C. R. Bell. 1968. Man. Vasc. Fl. Carolinas i–lxi, 1–1183. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
  • Schwegman, J. E. 1991. The Vascular Flora of Langham Island, Kankakee County, Illinois. Erigenia 11: 1–8.
  • Sherman-Broyles, S. L. 1992. Ulmaceae, Genus Ulmus. 26 pp.
  • Small, J. K. 1933. Man. S.E. Fl. i–xxii, 1–1554. Published by the Author, New York.
  • Species Plantarum 1: 226. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.)
  • Staff, TWC. (2008). NPIN: Ulmus americana (American elm).
  • Ulmaceae and Cannabaceae of North America Update
  • University_of_Michigan_(Dearborn_Herbarium) (2009). Native American Ethnobotany: Ulmus americana.
  • University_of_Wisconsin_Stevens_Point_Freckmann_Herbarium (2009). Ulmus americana: UW-Stevens Point Freckmann Herbarium: Plant Details Page.
  • Weeks, S. S., Harmon P. Weeks J.., & Parker G. R. (2005). Native Trees of the Midwest: Identification, Wildlife Values, and Landscaping Use. West Lafayette: Purdue University Press.
  • Wunderlin, R. P. 1998. Guide Vasc. Pl. Florida i–x, 1–806. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.
    1. Barnes, B. V. 1976. Succession in deciduous swamp  communities of southeastern Michigan formerly dominated by  American elm. Canadian Journal of Botany 54:19-24.
    3. Bragg, T. B., and L. C. Hulbert. 1976. Woody plant invasion  of unburned Kansas bluestem prairie. Journal of Range  Management 29:19-24.
    5. Filer, T. H., Jr., F. 1. McCracken, and E. R. Toole. 1968.  Cephalosporium wilt of elm in lower Mississippi valley.  Plant Disease Reporter 52:170-171.
    7. Ford, R. E., H. E. Moline, G. L. McDaniel, and others. 1972.  Discovery and characterization of elm mosaic virus in Iowa.  Phytopathology 62:987-992.
    9. Gibbs, J. N. 1978. Intercontinental epidemiology of Dutch  elm disease. Annual Review Phytopathology 16:287-307.
    11. Guries, Raymond P., and Eugene B. Smalley. 1986. Elms for  today and tomorrow. In Proceedings Third National Urban  Forestry Conference. p. 214-218. Orlando, FL.
    13. Harvey, R. B. 1980. Length of exposure to low temperatures  as a factor in the hardening process in tree seedlings.  Journal of Forestry 28:50-53.
    15. Johnson, W. C., R. L. Burgess, and W. R. Keammerer. 1976.  Forest overstory vegetation and environment on the Missouri  River floodplain in North Dakota. Ecological Monographs  46:59-84.
    17. Lee, M. J. T., and D. T. Lester. 1974. Floral receptivity in  American elm. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 4:416-417. 
    19. Lester, D. T. 1975. Variation in tolerance of American elm  to the Verticillium wilt fungus. Forest Science 21:227-231. 
    21. Lodhi, M. A. K. 1976. Role of allelopathy as expressed by  dominating trees in a lowland forest in controlling the  productivity and pattern of herbaceous growth. American  Journal of Botany 63:1-8.
    23. McBride, Joe. 1973. Natural replacement of disease-killed  elms. American Midland Naturalist 90:300-306.
    25. Richardson, C. J., and C. W. Cares. 1976. An analysis of elm  (Ulmus americana) mortality in a second-growth  hardwood forest in southeastern Michigan. Canadian Journal  of Botany 54:1120-1125.
    27. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1975. Dutch  elm disease. In Proceedings, International Union of  Forest Research Organization. D. A. Burdekin and H. M.  Heybroek, comps. USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Forest  Experiment Station, Upper Darby, PA. 94 p.
    29. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1979. A  guide to common insects and diseases of forest trees in the  Northeastern United States. USDA Forest Service, Forest  Insect and Disease Management NA-FR-4. Northeastern Area,  State and Private Forestry, Broomall, PA. 127 p.


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