The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1996. database, NODC Taxonomic Code
  • 1996. database, The PLANTS Database
  • 2000. database, The PLANTS Database
  • Coladonato, M. (1992). USDA FEIS: Ulmus americana.
  • Correll, D. S. & M. C. Johnston. 1970. Man. Vasc. Pl. Texas i–xv, 1–1881. The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson.
  • Gleason, H. A. & A.J. Cronquist. 1991. Man. Vasc. Pl. N.E. U.S. (ed. 2) i–910. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx.
  • Godfrey, R. K. & J. W. Wooten. 1981. Aquatic Wetland Pl. S.E. U.S. Dicot. 1–944. Univ. Georgia Press, Athens.
  • Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Fl. Great Plains i–vii, 1–1392. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence.
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2015. Insect Visitors of Illinois Wildflowers.  World Wide Web electronic publication., version (09/2015) 
    See:   Abbreviations for Insect ActivitiesAbbreviations for Scientific ObserversReferences for behavioral observations
  • Hultman, E. G. (1978). Trees, Shrubs and Flowers of the Midwest. 324. Chicago: Contemporary Books, Inc..
  • Image metadata at Bioimages ( External link.
  • Kartesz, J. T., & Biota_of_North_America_Program (2009). USDA PLANTS Profile: Ulmus americana L. American elm.
  • Marticorena C & R Rodríguez . 1995-2005. Flora de Chile. Vols 1, 2(1-3). Ed. Universidad de Concepción, Concepción. 351 pp., 99 pp., 93 pp., 128 pp. Matthei O. 1995. Manual de las malezas que crecen en Chile. Alfabeta Impresores. 545 p.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2015). ITIS Regional: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Dec 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Peattie, D C. (1930). Flora of the Indiana dunes, a handbook of the flowering plants and ferns of the lake Michigan Coast of Indiana and of the Calumet District. 432 . Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History.
  • Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles & C. R. Bell. 1968. Man. Vasc. Fl. Carolinas i–lxi, 1–1183. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
  • Schwegman, J. E. 1991. The Vascular Flora of Langham Island, Kankakee County, Illinois. Erigenia 11: 1–8.
  • Sherman-Broyles, S. L. 1992. Ulmaceae, Genus Ulmus. 26 pp.
  • Small, J. K. 1933. Man. S.E. Fl. i–xxii, 1–1554. Published by the Author, New York.
  • Species Plantarum 1: 226. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.)
  • Staff, TWC. (2008). NPIN: Ulmus americana (American elm).
  • Ulmaceae and Cannabaceae of North America Update
  • University_of_Michigan_(Dearborn_Herbarium) (2009). Native American Ethnobotany: Ulmus americana.
  • University_of_Wisconsin_Stevens_Point_Freckmann_Herbarium (2009). Ulmus americana: UW-Stevens Point Freckmann Herbarium: Plant Details Page.
  • Weeks, S. S., Harmon P. Weeks J.., & Parker G. R. (2005). Native Trees of the Midwest: Identification, Wildlife Values, and Landscaping Use. West Lafayette: Purdue University Press.
  • Wunderlin, R. P. 1998. Guide Vasc. Pl. Florida i–x, 1–806. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.
    1. Barnes, B. V. 1976. Succession in deciduous swamp  communities of southeastern Michigan formerly dominated by  American elm. Canadian Journal of Botany 54:19-24.
    3. Bragg, T. B., and L. C. Hulbert. 1976. Woody plant invasion  of unburned Kansas bluestem prairie. Journal of Range  Management 29:19-24.
    5. Filer, T. H., Jr., F. 1. McCracken, and E. R. Toole. 1968.  Cephalosporium wilt of elm in lower Mississippi valley.  Plant Disease Reporter 52:170-171.
    7. Ford, R. E., H. E. Moline, G. L. McDaniel, and others. 1972.  Discovery and characterization of elm mosaic virus in Iowa.  Phytopathology 62:987-992.
    9. Gibbs, J. N. 1978. Intercontinental epidemiology of Dutch  elm disease. Annual Review Phytopathology 16:287-307.
    11. Guries, Raymond P., and Eugene B. Smalley. 1986. Elms for  today and tomorrow. In Proceedings Third National Urban  Forestry Conference. p. 214-218. Orlando, FL.
    13. Harvey, R. B. 1980. Length of exposure to low temperatures  as a factor in the hardening process in tree seedlings.  Journal of Forestry 28:50-53.
    15. Johnson, W. C., R. L. Burgess, and W. R. Keammerer. 1976.  Forest overstory vegetation and environment on the Missouri  River floodplain in North Dakota. Ecological Monographs  46:59-84.
    17. Lee, M. J. T., and D. T. Lester. 1974. Floral receptivity in  American elm. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 4:416-417. 
    19. Lester, D. T. 1975. Variation in tolerance of American elm  to the Verticillium wilt fungus. Forest Science 21:227-231. 
    21. Lodhi, M. A. K. 1976. Role of allelopathy as expressed by  dominating trees in a lowland forest in controlling the  productivity and pattern of herbaceous growth. American  Journal of Botany 63:1-8.
    23. McBride, Joe. 1973. Natural replacement of disease-killed  elms. American Midland Naturalist 90:300-306.
    25. Richardson, C. J., and C. W. Cares. 1976. An analysis of elm  (Ulmus americana) mortality in a second-growth  hardwood forest in southeastern Michigan. Canadian Journal  of Botany 54:1120-1125.
    27. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1975. Dutch  elm disease. In Proceedings, International Union of  Forest Research Organization. D. A. Burdekin and H. M.  Heybroek, comps. USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Forest  Experiment Station, Upper Darby, PA. 94 p.
    29. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1979. A  guide to common insects and diseases of forest trees in the  Northeastern United States. USDA Forest Service, Forest  Insect and Disease Management NA-FR-4. Northeastern Area,  State and Private Forestry, Broomall, PA. 127 p.


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