The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • **.
  • 1996. database, The PLANTS Database
  • 1996. database, NODC Taxonomic Code
  • 2000. database, The PLANTS Database
  • 2011. database, Thelypteridaceae of North America Update
  • American Midland Naturalist 1: 226. 1910. (Amer. Midl. Naturalist)
  • Botanical Gazette 19: 497. 1894. (Bot. Gaz.)
  • Fernald, M. 1950. Manual (ed. 8) i–lxiv, 1–1632. American Book Co., New York.
  • Lellinger, D. B. 1985. A Field Manual of the Ferns and Fern Allies of the United States and Canada. 389 pp.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2015). ITIS Regional: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Dec 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Small, J. K. 1938. Ferns of the Southeastern States. 517 pp.


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