The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Connor, D.W., Dalkin, M.J., Hill, T.O., Holt, R.H.F. & Sanderson, W.G., (1997a). Marine biotope classification for Britain and Ireland. Vol. 2. Sublittoral biotopes. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough, JNCC Report no. 230, Version 97.06., Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough, JNCC Report no. 230, Version 97.06. External link.
  • FEY Laurent, ZIEMSKI Frédéric, in : DORIS, 12/2/2013 : Cucumaria frondosa (Gunnerus, 1767),
  • Gunnerus, J.E. (1767). Beskrifning på trenne Norrska Sjö-Kråk, Sjö-Pungar kallade. Kungl. Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar 28: 114-124
  • Hayward, P., Nelson-Smith, T. & Shields, C., (1996). Collins pocket guide. Sea shore of Britain and northern Europe. London: HarperCollins. External link.
  • Hayward, P.J. & Ryland, J.S. (ed.), (1995b). Handbook of the marine fauna of North-West Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press. External link.
  • Howson, C.M. & Picton, B.E. (ed.), (1997). The species directory of the marine fauna and flora of the British Isles and surrounding seas. Belfast: Ulster Museum. [Ulster Museum publication, no. 276.] External link.
  • JNCC (Joint Nature Conservation Committee), (1999). Marine Environment Resource Mapping And Information Database (MERMAID): Marine Nature Conservation Review Survey Database. [on-line], External link.
  • Lambert, P (1997). Family Cucumariidae UBC Press External link.
  • Levin, Valery S., and Elena N. Gudimova. 2001. Taxonomic interrelationships of holothurians Cucumaria frondosa and C. japonica (Dendochirotida, Cucumariidae). SPC Beche-de-mer Information Bulletin, no. 13. 24-32
  • McKenzie, J.D., (1991). The taxonomy and natural history of north European dendrochirote holothurians (Echinodermata). Journal of Natural History, 25, 123-171. External link.
  • NBN (National Biodiversity Network), (2002). National Biodiversity Network gateway., 2008-10-31 00:00:00 External link.
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
  • Paulay G. (2015). WoRMS Holothuroidea: World List of Holothuroidea (version 2015-08-01). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Paulay, G. (2015). Cucumaria frondosa (Gunnerus, 1767). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • Pawson, David L. 1977. Marine Flora and Fauna of the Northeastern United States. Echinodermata: Holothuroidea. NOAA Technical Report NMFS Circular 405. iii + 15
  • Southward, E.C.; Campbell, A.C. (2006). [Echinoderms: keys and notes for the identification of British species]. Synopses of the British fauna (new series), 56. Field Studies Council: Shrewsbury, UK. ISBN 1-85153-269-2. 272 pp.


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