The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 2012. "Dendraster excentricus" (On-line). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Accessed February 21, 2013 at
  • Barreiro, A.M., D.O.S. Recouvreaux, D. Hotza, L.M. Porto, and C.R. Rambo. 2010. Sand dollar skeleton as templates for bacterial cellulose coating and apatite precipitation. Mater. Sci. Forum 45: 5252-5256
  • Burke, R. 1980. Podial Sensory Receptors and the Induction of Metamorphosis in Echinoids. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 47/3: 223-234.
  • Burke, R. 1983. Neural Control of Metamporphosis in Dendraster excentricus. Biology Bulletin, 164: 176-188.
  • Burke, R. 1984. Pheromonal Control of Metamorphosis in the Pacific Sand Dollar, Dendraster excentricus. Science, 08/1984: 442-443. Accessed February 21, 2013 at
  • Casillas, E., D. Weber, C. Haley, and S. Sol. 1992. Comparison of growth and mortailty in juvenile sand dollars (Dendraster excentricus) as inficators of contaminated marine sediments. Envir. Tox. Chem. 11:559-569
  • Cowles, D. 2010. "Dendraster excentricus (Eschscholtz, 1831)" (On-line). Accessed September 22, 2012 at
  • Durham, J. 1978. Polymorphism in the Pliocene Sand Dollar Merriamaster (Echinoidea). Journal of Paleontology, 52(2): 275–286.
  • Emlet, R. 1986. Larval production, dispersal, and growth in a fjord: a case study on larvae of the sand dollar Dendraster excentricus. Marine Ecology: Progress Series, 31: 245-254. Accessed February 21, 2013 at
  • Fenstermacher LE, Crawford GB, Borgeld JC, Britt T, George DA, Klein MA, Driscoll NW, Mayer LA. 2001. Enhanced acoustic backscatter due to high abundance of sand dollars, Dendraster excentricus. Marine Georesources and Geotechnology. 19: 135-145.
  • Grzimek, B. 2003. Western Sand Dollar. Pp. 412 in M Hutchins, D Thoney, N Schlager, eds. Dendraster excentricus, Vol. 1, 2nd Edition. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group.
  • Kroh A. & Mooi R. (2015). WoRMS Echinoidea: World Echinoidea Database (version 2015-08-01). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Lambert, P., & Austin W. C. (2007). Brittle Stars, Sea Urchins and Feather Stars of British Columbia, Southeast Alaska and Puget Sound. 150. Victoria: Royal BC Museum.
  • Merrill, R., E. Hobson. 1970. Field Observations of Dendraster excentricus, a Sand Dollar of Western North America. American Midland Naturalist, 83(2): 595–624.
  • Monterey Bay Aquarium Foundation. 2012. "Sand Dollar" (On-line). Monterey Bay Aquarium. Accessed October 31, 2012 at
  • Mooi, R. 1997. Sand Dollars of the Genus Dendraster (Echinoidea: Clypeasteroida): Phylogenetic Systematics, Heterochrony, and Distribution of Extant Species. Bulletin of Marine Science, 61/2: 343-375. Accessed February 21, 2013 at
  • Morris, R., D. Abbott, E. Haderlie. 1980. Intertidal Invertebrates of California. Stanford California: Stanford University Press.
  • Pilkey, O., J. Hower. 1960. The Effect of Environment on the Concentration of Skeletal Magnesium and Strontium in Dendraster excentricus. The Journal of Geology, 68(2): 203–214.
  • Smith, N. 1973. A New Description of Syndesmis dendrastrorum (Platyhelminthes, Turbellaria), an Intestinal Rhabdocoel Inhabiting the Sand Dollar Dendraster excentricus. Biological Bulletin, 145/3: 598-606.
  • Tidwell, M. 2005. Beyond the Beach Blanket: A Field Guide to Southern California Coastal Wildlife. Missoula, MT: Mountain Press Publishing Company.
  • Vaughn, D., R. Strathmann. 2008. Predators Induce Cloning in Echinoderm Larvae. Science, 319(5869): 1503.


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