The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Ahearn, G., R. Benhnke. 1991. Diet, Feeding-Behaviour, and Surface-Morphology of the Multiarmed Antartic Sea Star Labidiaster-Annulatus. Marine Ecology- Progress Series, 77/1: 65-84.
  • Alender, C., J. Anderson, J. Binyon, R. Boolootian, D. Davenport. 1966. Physiology of Echinodermata. New York: Interscience.
  • Dayton, P. 1975. Experimental Evaluation of Ecological Dominance in a Rocky Intertidal Algal Community. Ecological Monographs, 45/2: 137-159.
  • Duggins, D. 1983. Starfish Predation and the Creation of Mosaic Patterns in a Kelp-Dominated Community. Ecology, 64/6: 1610-1619.
  • Esquivel, C. 2003. "Critter Care Club-species list: Invertebrates" (On-line). Accessed December 08, 2004 at
  • Holmes, P. 1994. "Star Fish" (On-line). Accessed December 09, 2004 at
  • Kozloff, Eugene N. 1987. Marine Invertebrates of the Pacific Northwest. 511
  • Lambert, P. 2000. Sea Stars of British Columbia, Southeast Alaska and Puget Sound. Vancouver: UBC Press.
  • Lawrence, J. 1987. A Functional Biology of Echinoderms. Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press.
  • Mah C.L. (2015). WoRMS Asteroidea: World Asteroidea database (version 2015-08-01). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Mah, C. (2015). Pycnopodia helianthoides (Brandt, 1835). In: Mah, C.L. (2015) World Asteroidea database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • Stocks, K. 2009. Seamounts Online: an online information system for seamount biology. Version 2009-1. World Wide Web electronic publication.
  • Tropica Beach. 2002. "Sea Stars" (On-line ). Accessed 03/25/03 at
  • Wootton, J. T. 1997. Estimates and Tests of Per Capita Interaction Strength: Diet, Abundance, and Impact of Intertidially Foraging Birds. Ecological Monographs, 67/1: 45-64.


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