The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Banister, K., A. Campbell. 1985. The Encyclopedia of Aquatic Life. New York: Facts of File Publications.
  • Bourton J. 2009. Starfish 'pump up' to cool down. BBC Earth News [Internet],
  • Buchsbaum, R., M. Buchsbaum, J. Pearse, V. Pearse. 1987. Animals Without Backbones 3rd Edition. Chicago & London: The University of Chicago Press.
  • Grzimeck, B. 1972. Grzimeck's Animal Life Encyclopedia Volume 3 Mollusks and Echnoderms. New York, Cincinnati, Chicago: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.
  • Holotype: Stimpson. 1862. Proc. Boston Soc. nat. Hist. 8: 263-264.
  • Holotype: Stimpson. 1862. Proc. Boston Soc. nat. Hist. 8: 264.
  • Kozloff, Eugene N. 1987. Marine Invertebrates of the Pacific Northwest. 511
  • Mah C.L. (2015). WoRMS Asteroidea: World Asteroidea database (version 2015-08-01). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Mah, C. (2015). Pisaster ochraceus (Brandt, 1835). In: Mah, C.L. (2015) World Asteroidea database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • McFadden, M. 2002. "Pisaster ochraceus (Brandt, 1835)" (On-line). Accessed December 26, 2004 at
  • Meinkoth, N. 1981. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Seashore Creatures. New York: Chanticleer Press, INC.
  • Multi-Agency Rocky Intertidal Network, 2004. "Pisaster ochraceus (Brandt, 1835): Ochre sea star" (On-line). Multi-Agency Rocky Intertidal Network. Accessed December 26, 2004 at
  • Nicol, J. 1960. The Biology of Marine Animals. New York: Interscience Publishers, INC.
  • Paine, R., S. Levin. 1981. Intertidal landscapes: disturbance and the dynamics of pattern. Ecological monographs, 51: 145-178.
  • Pincebourde S; Sanford E; Helmuth B. 2009. An intertidal sea star adjusts thermal inertia to avoid extreme body temperatures. American Naturalist. 174(6): 890-7.
  • Ricketts, E., J. Calvin, J. Hedgpeth. 1985. Between Pacific Tides. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.


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