The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Abbott, I., J. Ogden, D. Abbott. 1974. Studies on the activity pattern, behavior, and food of the echinoid Echinometra lucunter (Linnaeus). West Indies Laboratory, Fairleigh Dickinson University: Christiansted, St. Croix.
  • Almeida, D., A. Sole-Cava, I. Calderon. 2010. The sea urchin Echinometra lucunter as a refuge for the barber goby Elacatinus figaro. Arquivos do Museu Nacional, 68/1-2: 17-23.
  • Blevins, E., S. Johnsen. 2004. Spatial vision in the echinoid genus Echinometra. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 207: 4249-4253.
  • Bolton, T., T. Florence I.M.. 2002. Physical forces experienced by echinoid eggs in the oviduct during spawning: Comparison of the geminate pair Echinometra vanbrunti and Echinometra lucunter. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, Volume 267, Issue 2: 123–137.
  • Calderon, E., C. Zilberberg, P. De Paiva. 2007. Porifera Research: Biodiversity, Innovation and Sustainability. Rio de Janeiro: Série Livros 28, Museu Nacional.
  • Charpin, F. 2012. "Florent's Guide to the Tropical Reefs" (On-line). Accessed August 18, 2012 at
  • Clark, A.M. and J. Courtman-Stock. 1976. The echinoderms of southern Africa. Publ. No. 766. British Museum (Nat. Hist), London. 277 pp.
  • Collin, R., M. Diaz, J. Norenburg, R. Rocha, J. Sanchez, A. Schulz, M. Schwartz, A. Valdes. 2005. Photographic identification guide to some common marine invertebrates of Bocas Del Toro, Panama. Caribbean Journal of Science, Volume 41: 638-707.
  • Conway, C., A. Conway, D. Igelsrud. 1984. Sea Urchin Development. Pp. 53-89 in C Harris, ed. Tested studies for laboratory teaching. Proceedings of the third workshop/conference of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE).. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company. Accessed May 25, 2012 at
  • Ebert, T., M. Russell, G. Gamba, A. Bodnar. 2008. Growth, survival, and longevity estimates for the rock-boring sea urchin Echinometra lucunter (Echinodermata, Echinoidea) in Bermuda. Bulletin of Marine Science, Volume 82, Number 3: 381–403.
  • Furman, B., K. Heck, Jr.. 2009. Differential impacts of echinoid grazers on coral recruitment. Bulletin of Marine Science, 121–132, 2009, 85/2: 121-132.
  • Grünbaum, H., J. Ogden, D. Abbott, G. Bergman. 1978. Intraspecific agonistic behavior in the rock-boring sea urchin Echinometra lucunter (L.) (Echinodermata: Echinoidea). Bulletin of Marine Science, 28/1: 181-188.
  • IUCN, 2012. "The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1" (On-line). Accessed August 25, 2012 at
  • Jackson, R. 1912. Phylogeny of the Echini: with a revision of Palaeozoic species, Volume VII. Boston: The Society.
  • Kroh A. & Mooi R. (2015). WoRMS Echinoidea: World Echinoidea Database (version 2015-08-01). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Kroh, A. (2015). Echinometra lucunter (Linnaeus, 1758). In: Kroh, A. & Mooi, R. (2015) World Echinoidea Database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • Kroh, A. 2012. "
    Echinometra lucunter (Linnaeus, 1758)
    " (On-line). World Echinoidea Database. Accessed August 18, 2012 at
  • Lawrence, J., J. Kafri. 1979. Numbers, biomass, and caloric content of the echinoderm fauna of the rocky shores of Barbados. Marine Biology, Vol. 52 (1): 87-91.
  • Lewis, J., G. Storey. 1984. Morphology and life history of Echinometra from different habitats. Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol. 15: 207-211.
  • Lima, E., P. Gomes, J. Sousa. 2009. Reproductive biology of Echinometra lucunter (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) in a northeast Brazilian sandstone reef. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, Volume 81(1): 51-59.
  • McPherson, B. 1969. Studies on the biology of the tropical sea urchins, Echinometra lucunter and Echinometra viridis. Bulletin of Marine Science, Volume 19(1): 194-213.
  • Morishita, V., R. Barreto. 2011. Black sea urchins evaluate predation risk using chemical signals from a predator and injured con- and heterospecific prey. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 435: 173-181.
  • Schoppe, S. 1991. Echinometra lucunter (Linnaeus) (Echinoidea, Echinometridae) als Wirt einer komplexen Lebensgemeinschaft im Karibischen Meer. Helgoland Marine Research, 45/3: 373-379.
  • Sciana, J., B. Zychar, L. Gonçalves, T. Nogueira, R. Giorgi, D. Pimenta. 2010. Pro-inflammatory effects of the aqueous extract of Echinometra lucunter sea urchin spines. Experimental Biology and Medicine, 236/3: 277-280. Accessed August 18, 2012 atçalves&sortspec=date&submit=Submit.
  • Torres, I., N. Ablanedo, H. Gonzalez, M. Ramirez. 1990. Evaluacion del erizo de mar Echinometra lucunter como indicador de contaminacion por metales pesados, Cuba. Aquatic Living Resources, 3: 113-120.
  • Waikiki Aquarium. 2009. "Marine Life Profile: Rock-boring sea urchins" (On-line). Accessed August 18, 2012 at
  • Weintraub, L. 2012. "Boca del Toro: Species Database" (On-line). Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. Accessed August 18, 2012 at
  • Yerranilli, D., S. Johnsen. 2010. Spacial vision in the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Echinoidea). Journal of Experimental Biology, 213: 249-255.


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