The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Kozloff, Eugene N. 1987. Marine Invertebrates of the Pacific Northwest. 511
  • Kroh A. & Mooi R. (2015). WoRMS Echinoidea: World Echinoidea Database (version 2015-08-01). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Kroh, A. (2015). Strongylocentrotus pallidus (Sars G.O., 1872). In: Kroh, A. & Mooi, R. (2015) World Echinoidea Database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • Lambert, P., & Austin W. C. (2007). Brittle Stars, Sea Urchins and Feather Stars of British Columbia, Southeast Alaska and Puget Sound. 150. Victoria: Royal BC Museum.
  • Mortensen, T. (1943). A Monograph of the Echinoidea. III, 3. Camarodonta. II. Echinidæ, Strongylocentrotidæ, Parasaleniidæ, Echinometridæ. 446 pp., C. A. Reitzel, Copenhagen.
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
  • Southward, E.C.; Campbell, A.C. (2006). [Echinoderms: keys and notes for the identification of British species]. Synopses of the British fauna (new series), 56. Field Studies Council: Shrewsbury, UK. ISBN 1-85153-269-2. 272 pp.
  • Syntype: Agassiz, A. E. & Clark, H. L. 1907. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 51 (5): 122.; Agassiz, A. E. & Clark, H. L. 1907. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 51(5): 122.


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