Overview

Brief Summary

Living Material

This species grows in the form of upright, white, bushy tufts, 8 to 25 mm. high. The tube-like zooecia are arranged in two alternate rows. There is some question as to whether the species is dioecious or monoecious and protandrous. The conspicuous ovicells make the fertile "female" colonies easy to recognize. The form is common at Woods Hole, Mass.

  • Barrois, J., 1877. Recherches sur l'embryologie des Bryozoaires. Travaux de l'Inst. Zool. de Lille et de la Station Maritime de Wimereux. Monograph.
  • Bobg, F., 1926. Studies on recent cyclostomatous Bryozoa. Zool. Bidrag Fran Uppsala, 10: 181-504.
  • Harmer, S. F., 1893. On the occurrence of embryonic fission in cyclostomatous Polyzoa. Quart. J. Micr. Sci., 34: 199-241.
  • Robertson, A., 1903. Embryology and embryonic fission in the genus Crisia. Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 1: 115-156.
  • Rogick, M. D., and H. Croasdale, 1949. Studies on marine bryozoa, Iii. Woods Hole region bryozoa associated with algae. Biol. Bull., 96: 32-69.
  • Sit-En, L., 1944. The anatomy of Labiostomella Gisleni . . . with special regard to the embryo chambers of the different groups of Bryozoa and to the origin and development of the bryozoan zoarium. Kungl. Svensak Vetensk. Handlingar, Tredje ser., 21: no. 6, pp. 3-111.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley

Source: Biodiversity Literature Datasets

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Living Material

This species grows in the form of upright, white, bushy tufts, 8 to 25 mm. high. The tube-like zooecia are arranged in two alternate rows. There is some question as to whether the species is dioecious or monoecious and protandrous. The conspicuous ovicells make the fertile "female" colonies easy to recognize. The form is common at Woods Hole, Mass.

  • Barrois, J., 1877. Recherches sur l'embryologie des Bryozoaires. Travaux de l'Inst. Zool. de Lille et de la Station Maritime de Wimereux. Monograph.
  • Bobg, F., 1926. Studies on recent cyclostomatous Bryozoa. Zool. Bidrag Fran Uppsala, 10: 181-504.
  • Harmer, S. F., 1893. On the occurrence of embryonic fission in cyclostomatous Polyzoa. Quart. J. Micr. Sci., 34: 199-241.
  • Robertson, A., 1903. Embryology and embryonic fission in the genus Crisia. Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 1: 115-156.
  • Rogick, M. D., and H. Croasdale, 1949. Studies on marine bryozoa, Iii. Woods Hole region bryozoa associated with algae. Biol. Bull., 96: 32-69.
  • Sit-En, L., 1944. The anatomy of Labiostomella Gisleni . . . with special regard to the embryo chambers of the different groups of Bryozoa and to the origin and development of the bryozoan zoarium. Kungl. Svensak Vetensk. Handlingar, Tredje ser., 21: no. 6, pp. 3-111.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley

Source: Egg Characteristics and Breeding Season for Woods Hole Species

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Comprehensive Description

Colonies of C. eburnea form fragile white tufts as they grow on the stems of algae. Branches curve somewhat inward, and joints are yellowish in color. Zooids are tubular and punctate, approximately 0.10 X 0.25 mm on average. The orifice comes to a point distally. This species has short internodes of 5 - 7 zooids.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Loppens (1906) noemt deze soort algemeen op aangespoelde Flustra foliacea. Lacourt (1949) vermeldt het aanspoelen op Flustra foliacea, hydroïden en kurk langs de gehele Nederlandse kust. Maitland (1851) vermeldt vindplaatsen als Zandvoort, Katwijk en Scheveningen, waarschijnlijk op aangespoelde wieren en Flustra foliacea. Spoelt vaak aan op zeeden (Abietinaria abietina), Flustra foliacea, plastic en riemwiervoetjes (De Blauwe, 2005; Vanhaelen, et al., 2006).
translation missing: en.license_cc_by_4_0

© WoRMS Editorial Board

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

North Carolina to Labrador
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
translation missing: en.license_cc_by_4_0

© WoRMS Editorial Board

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

C. eburnea is common in cold water areas from Europe through West Africa in the eastern Atlantic, and from Labrador to Florida in the western Atlantic. C. eburnea occurs in the India River Lagoon in association with algae and seagrasses. Within the India River Lagoon, it has been reported only from around the Sebastian Inlet grass flats; however, it is likely to occur at other locations as well.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Size

Individual zooids measure 0.10 X 0.25 mm on average.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic Description

Description

Vormt dichte bosjes tot 2 cm hoog. De takken zijn kenmerkend naar binnen gebogen. Internoden bestaan gewoonlijk uit 5 tot 7 zoïden. Zijtakken ontspringen gewoonlijk op de 1ste zoïde in een internode, afwisselend links en rechts van de hoofdtak. Verbindingen geel of kleurloos bij jonge internoden, bruin in oudere koloniedelen. Peristoom kort en frontaal omgebogen, met de opening voorwaarts gericht. Soms een kleine puntige uitgroeiing naast de opening. Gonozoïde druppelvormig, vervangt de 2de of soms de 3de zoïde in de internode. De gonozoïdenopening is rond of dwars ovaal, schuin omhoog en voorwaarts gericht op een geleidelijk vernauwend buisje.
  • De_blauwe, H. (2009). Mosdiertjes van de Zuidelijke Bocht van de Noordzee: Determinatiewerk voor België en Nederland. Vlaams Instituut voor de Zee, Oostende. 464.
translation missing: en.license_cc_by_4_0

© WoRMS Editorial Board

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

bathyal, infralittoral and circalittoral of the Gulf and estuary
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
translation missing: en.license_cc_by_4_0

© WoRMS Editorial Board

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth range based on 470 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 52 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 2045
  Temperature range (°C): 3.364 - 23.867
  Nitrate (umol/L): 1.242 - 22.114
  Salinity (PPS): 27.165 - 36.446
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.653 - 7.160
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.097 - 1.496
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.685 - 15.679

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 2045

Temperature range (°C): 3.364 - 23.867

Nitrate (umol/L): 1.242 - 22.114

Salinity (PPS): 27.165 - 36.446

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.653 - 7.160

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.097 - 1.496

Silicate (umol/l): 1.685 - 15.679
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.
All rights reserved

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth range based on 470 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 52 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 2045
  Temperature range (°C): 3.364 - 23.867
  Nitrate (umol/L): 1.242 - 22.114
  Salinity (PPS): 27.165 - 36.446
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.653 - 7.160
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.097 - 1.496
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.685 - 15.679

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 2045

Temperature range (°C): 3.364 - 23.867

Nitrate (umol/L): 1.242 - 22.114

Salinity (PPS): 27.165 - 36.446

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.653 - 7.160

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.097 - 1.496

Silicate (umol/l): 1.685 - 15.679
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Trophic Strategy

C. eburnea, like all bryozoans, is a suspension feeder. Each individual zooid in a colony has ciliated tentacles that are extended to filter phytoplankton less than 0.045 mm in size (about 1/1800 of an inch) from the water column. Bullivant (1967; 1968) showed that the average individual zooid in a colony can clear 8.8 ml of water per day.Habitats: Typical habitat for ectoprocts in the Indian River Lagoon include seagrasses, drift algae, oyster reef, dock, pilings, breakwaters, and man-made debris (Winston 1995). C. eburnea occurs growing on algae, and ion seagrasses. In the IRL, it has been found growing in association with the red algae Solieria tenera.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Associations

Seagrasses as well as floating macroalgae, provide support for bryozoan colonies. In turn, bryozoans provide habitat for many species of juvenile fishes and their invertebrate prey such as polychaete worms, amphipods and copepods. (Winston 1995).Bryozoans are also found in association with other species that act as support structures: mangrove roots, oyster beds, mussels, etc.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population Biology

Though C. eburnea is common throughout its range, Winston (1982) reported its occurrence only once, from the grass flats around Sebastian Inlet where it was found growing on the Rhodophyte Soliera tenera.Locomotion: Sessile
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Diet

Small microorganisms, including diatoms and other unicellular algae.
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
translation missing: en.license_cc_by_4_0

© WoRMS Editorial Board

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life Cycle

Later Stages of Development

When the primary embryo reaches the 200 cell stage, it sends out processes which bud off as secondary embryos. When they are first formed, these secondary embryos are solid balls of cells, measuring between 25 and 35 microns in diameter. They develop into very degenerate free-swimming larvae, which leave the gonozoids through the open mouth. The larvae of Crisia eburnea have apparently not been described, but if they resemble those of C. ramosa, they are simple, ciliated, sac-like structures, consisting of an inner and an outer layer of cells. One surface bears a large invagination or sucker, by which attachment is effected; the opposite pole, which develops into the mouth cavity of the primary zoid, is flattened and non-ciliated. For a further description and figures of the larvae, see the papers of Barrois (1877) and Harmer (1893).

  • Barrois, J., 1877. Recherches sur l'embryologie des Bryozoaires. Travaux de l'Inst. Zool. de Lille et de la Station Maritime de Wimereux. Monograph.
  • Bobg, F., 1926. Studies on recent cyclostomatous Bryozoa. Zool. Bidrag Fran Uppsala, 10: 181-504.
  • Harmer, S. F., 1893. On the occurrence of embryonic fission in cyclostomatous Polyzoa. Quart. J. Micr. Sci., 34: 199-241.
  • Robertson, A., 1903. Embryology and embryonic fission in the genus Crisia. Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 1: 115-156.
  • Rogick, M. D., and H. Croasdale, 1949. Studies on marine bryozoa, Iii. Woods Hole region bryozoa associated with algae. Biol. Bull., 96: 32-69.
  • Sit-En, L., 1944. The anatomy of Labiostomella Gisleni . . . with special regard to the embryo chambers of the different groups of Bryozoa and to the origin and development of the bryozoan zoarium. Kungl. Svensak Vetensk. Handlingar, Tredje ser., 21: no. 6, pp. 3-111.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley

Source: Biodiversity Literature Datasets

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Early Stages of Development

The early development of the eggs occurs in ovicells, which are highly modified zooecia. These structures are usually the modified second or third zooecium of an internode, although they are not present in each internode. The ovicell is a vase-like structure, consisting of a narrow stalk, a bulging mid-region and a short neck. The neck contains an opening through which the free-swimming larvae are released. The opacity of the ovicells, and the minute size of the eggs and developing embryos, make it impracticable to study early development by methods other than histological.

The eggs, measuring 18 microns or less in diameter, become associated with young zoid buds which are transformed into gonozoids. Only one egg develops in each gonozoid. Fertilization is internal, but the details of maturation and fertilization are not known. The early cleavages are unusual, in that the small follicle cells, which apparently serve as food for the developing embryo, actually penetrate between the blastomeres and separate them completely. The follicle cells start to disappear in the 24-cell stage and by the 60- or 70-cell stage, the embryo consists of a solid ball of cells, measuring about 43 microns in diameter. The increase in cell number continues until the embryo contains about 200 cells.

  • Barrois, J., 1877. Recherches sur l'embryologie des Bryozoaires. Travaux de l'Inst. Zool. de Lille et de la Station Maritime de Wimereux. Monograph.
  • Bobg, F., 1926. Studies on recent cyclostomatous Bryozoa. Zool. Bidrag Fran Uppsala, 10: 181-504.
  • Harmer, S. F., 1893. On the occurrence of embryonic fission in cyclostomatous Polyzoa. Quart. J. Micr. Sci., 34: 199-241.
  • Robertson, A., 1903. Embryology and embryonic fission in the genus Crisia. Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 1: 115-156.
  • Rogick, M. D., and H. Croasdale, 1949. Studies on marine bryozoa, Iii. Woods Hole region bryozoa associated with algae. Biol. Bull., 96: 32-69.
  • Sit-En, L., 1944. The anatomy of Labiostomella Gisleni . . . with special regard to the embryo chambers of the different groups of Bryozoa and to the origin and development of the bryozoan zoarium. Kungl. Svensak Vetensk. Handlingar, Tredje ser., 21: no. 6, pp. 3-111.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley

Source: Biodiversity Literature Datasets

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Later Stages of Development

When the primary embryo reaches the 200 cell stage, it sends out processes which bud off as secondary embryos. When they are first formed, these secondary embryos are solid balls of cells, measuring between 25 and 35 microns in diameter. They develop into very degenerate free-swimming larvae, which leave the gonozoids through the open mouth. The larvae of Crisia eburnea have apparently not been described, but if they resemble those of C. ramosa, they are simple, ciliated, sac-like structures, consisting of an inner and an outer layer of cells. One surface bears a large invagination or sucker, by which attachment is effected; the opposite pole, which develops into the mouth cavity of the primary zoid, is flattened and non-ciliated. For a further description and figures of the larvae, see the papers of Barrois (1877) and Harmer (1893).

  • Barrois, J., 1877. Recherches sur l'embryologie des Bryozoaires. Travaux de l'Inst. Zool. de Lille et de la Station Maritime de Wimereux. Monograph.
  • Bobg, F., 1926. Studies on recent cyclostomatous Bryozoa. Zool. Bidrag Fran Uppsala, 10: 181-504.
  • Harmer, S. F., 1893. On the occurrence of embryonic fission in cyclostomatous Polyzoa. Quart. J. Micr. Sci., 34: 199-241.
  • Robertson, A., 1903. Embryology and embryonic fission in the genus Crisia. Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 1: 115-156.
  • Rogick, M. D., and H. Croasdale, 1949. Studies on marine bryozoa, Iii. Woods Hole region bryozoa associated with algae. Biol. Bull., 96: 32-69.
  • Sit-En, L., 1944. The anatomy of Labiostomella Gisleni . . . with special regard to the embryo chambers of the different groups of Bryozoa and to the origin and development of the bryozoan zoarium. Kungl. Svensak Vetensk. Handlingar, Tredje ser., 21: no. 6, pp. 3-111.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley

Source: Egg Characteristics and Breeding Season for Woods Hole Species

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Early Stages of Development

The early development of the eggs occurs in ovicells, which are highly modified zooecia. These structures are usually the modified second or third zooecium of an internode, although they are not present in each internode. The ovicell is a vase-like structure, consisting of a narrow stalk, a bulging mid-region and a short neck. The neck contains an opening through which the free-swimming larvae are released. The opacity of the ovicells, and the minute size of the eggs and developing embryos, make it impracticable to study early development by methods other than histological.

The eggs, measuring 18 microns or less in diameter, become associated with young zoid buds which are transformed into gonozoids. Only one egg develops in each gonozoid. Fertilization is internal, but the details of maturation and fertilization are not known. The early cleavages are unusual, in that the small follicle cells, which apparently serve as food for the developing embryo, actually penetrate between the blastomeres and separate them completely. The follicle cells start to disappear in the 24-cell stage and by the 60- or 70-cell stage, the embryo consists of a solid ball of cells, measuring about 43 microns in diameter. The increase in cell number continues until the embryo contains about 200 cells.

  • Barrois, J., 1877. Recherches sur l'embryologie des Bryozoaires. Travaux de l'Inst. Zool. de Lille et de la Station Maritime de Wimereux. Monograph.
  • Bobg, F., 1926. Studies on recent cyclostomatous Bryozoa. Zool. Bidrag Fran Uppsala, 10: 181-504.
  • Harmer, S. F., 1893. On the occurrence of embryonic fission in cyclostomatous Polyzoa. Quart. J. Micr. Sci., 34: 199-241.
  • Robertson, A., 1903. Embryology and embryonic fission in the genus Crisia. Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 1: 115-156.
  • Rogick, M. D., and H. Croasdale, 1949. Studies on marine bryozoa, Iii. Woods Hole region bryozoa associated with algae. Biol. Bull., 96: 32-69.
  • Sit-En, L., 1944. The anatomy of Labiostomella Gisleni . . . with special regard to the embryo chambers of the different groups of Bryozoa and to the origin and development of the bryozoan zoarium. Kungl. Svensak Vetensk. Handlingar, Tredje ser., 21: no. 6, pp. 3-111.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley

Source: Egg Characteristics and Breeding Season for Woods Hole Species

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Reproduction

Breeding Season

In San Francisco Bay, the animals breed from late February to May. The limits of the breeding season have not been investigated in the Woods Hole region, although Rogick and Croasdale (1949) report that they found embryos in the ovicells as late as August 8.

  • Barrois, J., 1877. Recherches sur l'embryologie des Bryozoaires. Travaux de l'Inst. Zool. de Lille et de la Station Maritime de Wimereux. Monograph.
  • Bobg, F., 1926. Studies on recent cyclostomatous Bryozoa. Zool. Bidrag Fran Uppsala, 10: 181-504.
  • Harmer, S. F., 1893. On the occurrence of embryonic fission in cyclostomatous Polyzoa. Quart. J. Micr. Sci., 34: 199-241.
  • Robertson, A., 1903. Embryology and embryonic fission in the genus Crisia. Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 1: 115-156.
  • Rogick, M. D., and H. Croasdale, 1949. Studies on marine bryozoa, Iii. Woods Hole region bryozoa associated with algae. Biol. Bull., 96: 32-69.
  • Sit-En, L., 1944. The anatomy of Labiostomella Gisleni . . . with special regard to the embryo chambers of the different groups of Bryozoa and to the origin and development of the bryozoan zoarium. Kungl. Svensak Vetensk. Handlingar, Tredje ser., 21: no. 6, pp. 3-111.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley

Source: Biodiversity Literature Datasets

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Breeding Season

In San Francisco Bay, the animals breed from late February to May. The limits of the breeding season have not been investigated in the Woods Hole region, although Rogick and Croasdale (1949) report that they found embryos in the ovicells as late as August 8.

  • Barrois, J., 1877. Recherches sur l'embryologie des Bryozoaires. Travaux de l'Inst. Zool. de Lille et de la Station Maritime de Wimereux. Monograph.
  • Bobg, F., 1926. Studies on recent cyclostomatous Bryozoa. Zool. Bidrag Fran Uppsala, 10: 181-504.
  • Harmer, S. F., 1893. On the occurrence of embryonic fission in cyclostomatous Polyzoa. Quart. J. Micr. Sci., 34: 199-241.
  • Robertson, A., 1903. Embryology and embryonic fission in the genus Crisia. Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 1: 115-156.
  • Rogick, M. D., and H. Croasdale, 1949. Studies on marine bryozoa, Iii. Woods Hole region bryozoa associated with algae. Biol. Bull., 96: 32-69.
  • Sit-En, L., 1944. The anatomy of Labiostomella Gisleni . . . with special regard to the embryo chambers of the different groups of Bryozoa and to the origin and development of the bryozoan zoarium. Kungl. Svensak Vetensk. Handlingar, Tredje ser., 21: no. 6, pp. 3-111.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley

Source: Egg Characteristics and Breeding Season for Woods Hole Species

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Growth

Gonozooids in C. eburnea generally occur between the fourth and fifth zooid of a fertile internode. They are elongate and roughly club shaped, but rounded distally. The oeciopore is a short tube with a transverse ovoid opening. Larvae emerging from the oeciopore remain on the parent colony briefly before entering the water column (Winston 1982).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Crisia eburnea

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.

Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

ACCTTGTATTTTTTATTTGCCATTTGAGCAGGTTTAATCGGAAGAGCTATG---TCTTTTATTATCCGTAGAGAATTAAGACAACCAGGCTCGTTCCTTTCAGAT---GACCAACTTTATAATGTTATTGTAACAAGCCATGCGTTTGTTATAATTTTTTTCTTTGTAATACCCATAATAATTGGTGGCTTCGGAAACTGACTAATTCCTTTAATAATA---AAATCTCCAGATATAGCATTTCCACGACTGAACAATATAAGATTTTGGTTATTACCCCCAGCATTATTATTCCTTACAACCTCGTCAATTGTAGACAATGGTGCAGGTACTGGGTGAACCGTTTATCCACCACTATCAGACTCTTTAGCCCACAGAGGAAAAAGAGTTGACTTA---ACAATCTTTGCACTACACTTGGCAGGAATCTCATCAATTTTAGGAGCTCTCAATTTTATTACAACTATTATAAAAATACGAAGAAAAGAA---AGAATTGATAAATCAACACTTTTTATTTGATCAATTATTATCACAGCTATTTTACTATTAATTTCTTTGCCGGTATTAGCTGGA---GCTATTACAATACTATTAACAGATCGAAATTTCAACACTTCATTTTTCGACCCTACTGGAGGAGGTGACCCTATTTTATAT
-- end --

Download FASTA File

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Crisia eburnea

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Methods of Observation

Although the animals must be sectioned if early developmental stages are desired, both the primary embryo and the secondary embryos can be dissected from the ovicells with fine needles.

  • Barrois, J., 1877. Recherches sur l'embryologie des Bryozoaires. Travaux de l'Inst. Zool. de Lille et de la Station Maritime de Wimereux. Monograph.
  • Bobg, F., 1926. Studies on recent cyclostomatous Bryozoa. Zool. Bidrag Fran Uppsala, 10: 181-504.
  • Harmer, S. F., 1893. On the occurrence of embryonic fission in cyclostomatous Polyzoa. Quart. J. Micr. Sci., 34: 199-241.
  • Robertson, A., 1903. Embryology and embryonic fission in the genus Crisia. Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 1: 115-156.
  • Rogick, M. D., and H. Croasdale, 1949. Studies on marine bryozoa, Iii. Woods Hole region bryozoa associated with algae. Biol. Bull., 96: 32-69.
  • Sit-En, L., 1944. The anatomy of Labiostomella Gisleni . . . with special regard to the embryo chambers of the different groups of Bryozoa and to the origin and development of the bryozoan zoarium. Kungl. Svensak Vetensk. Handlingar, Tredje ser., 21: no. 6, pp. 3-111.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley

Source: Biodiversity Literature Datasets

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Care of Adults

The colonies may be kept in aquaria supplied with an adequate amount of running sea water.

  • Barrois, J., 1877. Recherches sur l'embryologie des Bryozoaires. Travaux de l'Inst. Zool. de Lille et de la Station Maritime de Wimereux. Monograph.
  • Bobg, F., 1926. Studies on recent cyclostomatous Bryozoa. Zool. Bidrag Fran Uppsala, 10: 181-504.
  • Harmer, S. F., 1893. On the occurrence of embryonic fission in cyclostomatous Polyzoa. Quart. J. Micr. Sci., 34: 199-241.
  • Robertson, A., 1903. Embryology and embryonic fission in the genus Crisia. Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 1: 115-156.
  • Rogick, M. D., and H. Croasdale, 1949. Studies on marine bryozoa, Iii. Woods Hole region bryozoa associated with algae. Biol. Bull., 96: 32-69.
  • Sit-En, L., 1944. The anatomy of Labiostomella Gisleni . . . with special regard to the embryo chambers of the different groups of Bryozoa and to the origin and development of the bryozoan zoarium. Kungl. Svensak Vetensk. Handlingar, Tredje ser., 21: no. 6, pp. 3-111.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley

Source: Biodiversity Literature Datasets

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Benefit in IRL: Bryozoans are ecologically important in the Indian River Lagoon due to their feeding method. As suspension feeders, they act as living filters in the marine environment. For example, Winston (1995) reported that bryozoan colonies located in 1 square meter of seagrass bed could potentially filter and recirculate an average of 48,000 gallons of seawater per day.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Methods of Observation

Although the animals must be sectioned if early developmental stages are desired, both the primary embryo and the secondary embryos can be dissected from the ovicells with fine needles.

  • Barrois, J., 1877. Recherches sur l'embryologie des Bryozoaires. Travaux de l'Inst. Zool. de Lille et de la Station Maritime de Wimereux. Monograph.
  • Bobg, F., 1926. Studies on recent cyclostomatous Bryozoa. Zool. Bidrag Fran Uppsala, 10: 181-504.
  • Harmer, S. F., 1893. On the occurrence of embryonic fission in cyclostomatous Polyzoa. Quart. J. Micr. Sci., 34: 199-241.
  • Robertson, A., 1903. Embryology and embryonic fission in the genus Crisia. Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 1: 115-156.
  • Rogick, M. D., and H. Croasdale, 1949. Studies on marine bryozoa, Iii. Woods Hole region bryozoa associated with algae. Biol. Bull., 96: 32-69.
  • Sit-En, L., 1944. The anatomy of Labiostomella Gisleni . . . with special regard to the embryo chambers of the different groups of Bryozoa and to the origin and development of the bryozoan zoarium. Kungl. Svensak Vetensk. Handlingar, Tredje ser., 21: no. 6, pp. 3-111.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley

Source: Egg Characteristics and Breeding Season for Woods Hole Species

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Care of Adults

The colonies may be kept in aquaria supplied with an adequate amount of running sea water.

  • Barrois, J., 1877. Recherches sur l'embryologie des Bryozoaires. Travaux de l'Inst. Zool. de Lille et de la Station Maritime de Wimereux. Monograph.
  • Bobg, F., 1926. Studies on recent cyclostomatous Bryozoa. Zool. Bidrag Fran Uppsala, 10: 181-504.
  • Harmer, S. F., 1893. On the occurrence of embryonic fission in cyclostomatous Polyzoa. Quart. J. Micr. Sci., 34: 199-241.
  • Robertson, A., 1903. Embryology and embryonic fission in the genus Crisia. Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 1: 115-156.
  • Rogick, M. D., and H. Croasdale, 1949. Studies on marine bryozoa, Iii. Woods Hole region bryozoa associated with algae. Biol. Bull., 96: 32-69.
  • Sit-En, L., 1944. The anatomy of Labiostomella Gisleni . . . with special regard to the embryo chambers of the different groups of Bryozoa and to the origin and development of the bryozoan zoarium. Kungl. Svensak Vetensk. Handlingar, Tredje ser., 21: no. 6, pp. 3-111.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley

Source: Egg Characteristics and Breeding Season for Woods Hole Species

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!