Comprehensive Description

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 Head: Male and female antennae scaled above, naked below; occiput with dentate scales projecting slightly between antennal bases; a rough, poorly-developed line of scales just below antennal bases; front smoothly scaled, without frontal process, raised ring, or other modifications; eye normal, rounded, without hair; ocelli present; no lashes from either base of antenna or rear margin of eye; palpus unmodified, upturned, reaching about midpoint of front; third segment about one-third length of second; both second and third palpal segments smoothly scaled, first segment with a ventral tuft of scales; haustellum normal. Thorax: Wing venation normal for trifid noctuids; dorsum of thorax covered with elongate scales. Frenulum in female occasionally with a single bristle. Prothoracic leg: femur closely covered with flat scales except for a few rough scales projecting along ventral margin; tibia about one-half as long as femur, smoothly scaled, except for a few rough scales along outer margins; tibial claws and spines absent; first tarsal segment almost as long as tibia; first three tarsal segments scaled both dorsally and ventrally, fourth and fifth tarsal segments may have reduced scaling, fifth tarsal segment mostly naked ventrally; tarsal segments with three rows of spines ventrally. Mesothoracic and metathoracic legs: femur about four times longer than wide, smoothly scaled, except for fringe of long hairs along ventral margin; tibia scaling rougher than on femur; usual one mesotibial and two metatibial pairs of spurs; tarsal segments as in prothoracic leg. External tympanal region with alula strong; tympanic membrane circular, not elongate. Male abdomen: Weak tufts of scales present or absent on dorsum of segments one and two; sternite 1+2 without basal hair pencils or Stobe’s glands; sclerotized margin of eighth sternite appears U-shaped; eighth sternite with two separate strong lines of hairs, not clearly separated into two hair pencils; sclerotized region of eighth tergite Y-shaped. Male genitalia: Uncus straight, narrow, often hairy; scaphium variously sclerotized; subscaphium variously sclerotized; anal tube variously sclerotized; tegumen simple, with or without slight projecting lobe near articulation with vinculum; tegumen hairy; vinculum and tegumen articulating directly, neither extensions, processes, nor separate pleurites present; juxta variously triangular, drawn out posteriorly; valve with saccular and cucullar regions separated giving valve a bifid appearance; cucullar region rectangular, ovate, or elongate; mesial surface of distal part of cucullar region simple and densely hairy, projections from costal margin present or absent; type species with a clasper located near junction of cucullar and saccular parts of valve, clasper-like structure present or absent in other species; saccular part of valve long, shorter than cucullar part, narrow, mesially densely covered with hairs; shaft of aedeagus narrow, with slight apical process variable; vesica long, from one half loop to two full loops, with or without diverticula or spines. Female genitalia: Ovipositor lobes unmodified, setae present; anterior apophyses and posterior apophyses, short, approximately equal in length; ostium in membrane between seventh and eighth abdominal segments, closer to eighth segment, with varying amounts of sclerotization; ductus bursae generally narrow, sclerotized or membranous, of variable length; appendix bursae wide, membranous; corpus bursae globular, slightly narrowed at junction with ductus bursae and appendix bursae; signa present or absent.


Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Eric H. Metzler, Edward C. Knudson, Robert W. Poole, J. Donald Lafontaine, Michael G. Pogue

Source: ZooKeys

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