Overview

Distribution

Range Description

This species occurs primarily off the Pacific coast of California from central California at the Farallon Islands south to southern Baja California, Mexico (Gilly et al. 2010, Tenorio et al. 2012).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species lives at depths of 0 to 30 m where it occurs on rocky reefs, on rocks, and on sandy substrate. It is common in tide pools (Tenorio et al. 2012). Adults may grow to 49 mm in length (www.schnr-specimen-shells.com) but will typically be less than this. This species is unusual in that it consumes worms, fish and molluscs rather than just one group.

Systems
  • Marine
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Evolution and Systematics

Functional Adaptations

Toxins and Related Anatomical Features

  The venom of cone snails is one of the most intriguing substances extant in the natural world. As one of the most potent of venoms, much effort has gone into understanding its biochemistry. Among Gastropods, these snails have some of the most distinctly specialized radulas. The process by which this venom is created and then passed into the victim has been the topic of more recent research. In both the Marshall and Salisbury paper, it is suggested that the biomechanics behind C. Californicus' venom delivery mechanisms is likely quite similar across the Conus genus.

Morphologically, all of the apparatuses involved in venom excretion and delivery are concentrated in the anterior end of the digestive tract. It can be simplified into a three-part structure, each part with unique function: The venom duct (differentiated into the proximal and distal ends of the duct), the radular sac in which the harpoon-like teeth are stored, and the muscular bulb (the function of this portion is the least understood).

Venom is potentially simplified prior to delivery to the prey item (which in C. californicus could be any number of organisms, as this temperate species feeds on a distinctly more diverse diet than it's tropical counterparts). This is supported by the presence of specialized epithelial cells in the duct. It is also reasonable, based upon the findings of Marshall (2002) to believe that the teeth are "pre-loaded" with venom within the radular sac preceding their use.

C. californicus, like all snails of genus Conus, posesses an incredibly well-adapted venom and venom-delivery mechanism. Much investigation is left to be made into the precision hunting instruments of these predators.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Conus californicus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 48 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

TTATATATTTTATTTGGTATATGATCTGGGTTAGTTGGTACAGCTTTA---AGTTTACTTATTCGGGCTGAATTAGGTCAACCTGGAGCCTTATTAGGAGAT---GATCAGCTGTATAATGTTATTGTTACGGCTCATGCTTTCGTTATAATTTTTTTCTTGGTTATGCCTATGATAATTGGTGGTTTTGGTAACTGGTTGGTACCTTTAATA---CTTGGAGCACCTGATATGGTATTTCCACGACTGAATAATATAAGCTTTTGACTTTTACCCCCTGCTTTGTTATTACTTCTATCATCAGCTGCAGTGGAAAGAGGTGTGGGGACCGGATGAACGGTCTATCCCCCATTATCTGGAAACCTAGCTCATGCAGGAGGTTCGGTAGACTTG---GCCATTTTTTCATTGCACCTTGCTGGTGTTTCATCAATTTTAGGGGCAGTAAATTTTATTACAACAATTATCAACATACGATGACAAGGAATGCAATTTGAGCGTCTTCCTTTGTTTGTATGATCGGTGAAAATTACTGCTATTCTTTTACTTCTGTCGCTACCTGTGTTAGCAGGA---GCCATTACTATGCTTCTAACAGATCGAAACTTTAATACAGCTTTCTTTGATCCAGCAGGAGGTGGTGATCCGATCCTATATCAGCATTTG------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------TTT
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Conus californicus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 48
Specimens with Barcodes: 48
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Tenorio, M.J.

Reviewer/s
Coltro, J., Petuch, E. & Peters, H.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species occurs primarily off the Pacific coast of California from central California at the Farallon Islands south to southern Baja California, Mexico. There are no known threats. This species is listed as Least Concern.
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Population

Population
There are no population data available in the literature for this species.
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no known material threats to this species.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no known conservation measures currently in place for this species.
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Wikipedia

Conus californicus

Californiconus californicus, common name the California cone, is a species of small, predatory sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails. [1]

As both the Latin name and common name suggest, this cone is found in California.

Distribution and habitat[edit]

This small cone snail is unusual, most species are tropical whereas this species lives in the cooler, temperate waters of the eastern Pacific Ocean, including most of the coast of California.[2] The range of this species is from the Farallon Islands near San Francisco to Bahia Magdalena, in Baja California, Mexico. [1]

This cone is found in both rocky and sandy areas, in the intertidal zone and subtidally down to 30 meters depth. [2]

Shell description[edit]

This shell is distinguished by its grayish brown color and thick periostracum. It is round-shouldered with the aperture broader at the base. The spire is flat and the height of the shell ranges from 25–40 mm.[3]

Feeding habits[edit]

The California cone hunts and eats marine worms, fish and mollusks. It is also a scavenger.[2]

Gallery[edit]

Fossil record[edit]

Fossils of Californiconus californicus have been recovered from the Late Pleistocene strata of Isla Vista, California.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Conus californicus Reeve, 1844.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 27 March 2010.
  2. ^ a b Stewart J. & Gilly W. F. (October 2005). "Piscivorous Behavior of a Temperate Cone Snail, Conus californicus". Biological Bulletin 209: 146-153. full text.
  3. ^ McLean, James H., 1978 Marine Shells of Southern California, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County Museum, Science Series 24, 51-52.
  4. ^ McMenamin, M. A. S. (1984). "Conus californicus from the Late Pleistocene of Isla Vista, California". Bulletin of the Southern California Paleontological Society 16 (1&2): 9. 

External links[edit]

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