The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Andrews, J. 1981. A field guide: Texas shells. Austin: University of Texas Press.
  • Duval, M., A. Calzetta, D. Rittschof. 1994. Behavioral responses of Littorina irrorata (SAY) to water-borne odors. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 20: 3321-3334.
  • Emerson, W., M. Jacobson. 1976. American The Museum of Natural History: guide to shells: land, freshwater and marine, from Nova Scotia to Florida. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
  • Graça, M., S. Newell, R. Kneib. 2000. Grazing rates of organic matter and living fungal biomass of decaying Spartina alterniflora by three species of salt-marsh invertebrates. Marine Biology, 136: 281-289.
  • Hamilton, P. 1976. Predation on Littorina irrorata by Callinectes sapidus (Crustacea: Portunidae). Bulletin of Marine Science, 26: 403-409.
  • Hamilton, P. 1982. Behavioral responses to visual stimuli by the snail, Littorina irrorata. Animal Behaviour, 30: 752-760.
  • Hamilton, P., S. Ardizzoni, J. Penn. 1983. Eye structure and optics in the intertidal snail Littorina irrorata. Journal of Comparative Physiology: A. Sensory neural and behavioral physiology, 152: 435-446.
  • Henry, R., A. Williams, C. McBride. 1993. Responses of the marsh periwinkle, Littoraria (littorina) irrorata to temperature, salinity and desiccation, and the potential physiological relationship to climbing behavior. Marine Behavior and Physiology, 24: 45-54.
  • Hyman, L. 1967. The invertebrates. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company.
  • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, , Environmental Protection Agency. 2004. "Periwinkle (Littorina irrorata)" (On-line). N. C. Plant and Animal Species Fact Sheets. Accessed January 03, 2005 at
  • Pechnik, J. 2000. Biology of the invertebrates. Boston: McGraw-Hill Book Company.
  • Purchon, R. 1968. The biology of the Mollusca. London: Pergamon Press.
  • Rehder, H. 1981. The Audubon Society field guide to North America seashells. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
  • Snyder, R. 2001. "Salt Marsh Molluscs" (On-line). Flora and Fauna of Northwest Florida. Accessed December 22, 2004 at
  • Whitelaw, D. 2000. "Prey availability for the diamondback terrapin population of Milford Marsh, Connecticut" (On-line). Research Conducted at the University of New Haven, Connecticut, 1999. Accessed January 03, 2005 at
  • Wilbur, K., C. Vonge. 1964. Physiology of Mollusca. New York: Academic Press.


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