The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Bouchet P., Gofas S. & Rosenberg G. (2015). WoRMS Mollusca: World Marine Mollusca database (version Feb 2013). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Reid, D. G. 1989. The Comparative Morphology, Phylogeny and Evolution of the Gastropod Family, Littorinidae. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 324: 1-110.
  • Williams S.T. & Reid D.G. 2004. Speciation and diversity on tropical rocky shores: a global phylogeny of snails of the genus Echinolittorina. Evolution 58(10): 2227–2251


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