The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Abhandlungen herausgegeben vom Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereine zu Bremen 4: 183. 1874. (Oct 1874) (Abh. Naturwiss. Vereine Bremen)
  • Anonymous. 1986. List-Based Rec., Soil Conserv. Serv., U.S.D.A. Database of the U.S.D.A., Beltsville.
  • Gleason, H. A. & A.J. Cronquist. 1991. Man. Vasc. Pl. N.E. U.S. (ed. 2) i–910. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx.
  • Hickman, J. C. 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California 1–1400. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Rubi Germanici, Descripti et Figuris Illustrati 46, pl. 20. 1822. (Rubi German.)
  • Wilson K.L. & Berendsohn W.G. (eds) (2015). IOPI Global Plant Checklist (version 10.0, Aug 2007). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.


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