The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1. Abrams, Marc D. 1986. Ecological role of fire in gallery forests in eastern Kansas. In: Koonce, Andrea L., ed. Prescribed burning in the Midwest: state-of-the-art: Proceedings of a symposium; 1986 March 3-6; Stevens Point, WI. Stevens Point, WI: University of Wisconsin, College of Natural Resources, Fire Science Center: 73-80. [16271]
  • 10. Brothers, Timothy S. 1988. Indiana surface-mine forests: historical development and composition of a human-created vegetation complex. Southeastern Geographer. 28(1): 19-33. [8787]
  • 11. Brown, Russell G.; Brown, Melvin L. 1972. Woody plants of Maryland. Baltimore, MD: Port City Press. 347 p. [21844]
  • 12. Bryant, William S. 1989. Redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) communities in the Kentucky River Gorge area of the bluegrass region of Kentucky. In: Rink, George; Budelsky, Carl A., eds. Proceedings, 7th central hardwood conference; 1989 March 5-8; Carbondale, IL. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-132. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station: 254-261. [9387]
  • 13. Calabrese, Diane M. 1993. A geography of state trees. American Forests. 99(3&4): 34-37. [21053]
  • 14. Clark, Ross; Bachtell, Kris R. 1992. Eastern redbud (Cercis canadensis L.). Morton Arboretum Quarterly. 28(1): 6-10. [22836]
  • 15. Collier, Clifford W., Jr.; Longenecker, George W. 1972. Cultivation of eastern redbud (Cercis canadensis). Misc. Pub. 434. Morgantown, WV: West Virginia University, Cooperative Extension Service. 2 p. [22837]
  • 16. Collingwood, G. H.; Brush, Warren D.; [revised and edited by Butcher, Devereux]
  • 17. Doran, William L. 1941. The propagation of some trees and shrubs by cuttings. Bulletin No. 382. Amherst, MA: Massachusetts State College, Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station. 56 p. [20255]
  • 18. Duncan, Wilbur H.; Duncan, Marion B. 1988. Trees of the southeastern United States. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 322 p. [12764]
  • 2. Abrams, Marc D. 1988. Effects of burning regime on buried seed banks and canopy coverage in a Kansas tallgrass prairie. Southwestern Naturalist. 33(1): 65-70. [4415]
  • 20. Farrell, John D.; Ware, Stewart. 1991. Edaphic factors and forest vegetation in the piedmont of Virgina. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 118(2): 161-169. [15694]
  • 21. Franklin, Joe; Brand, Rex. 1991. Cattle and fire--important tools benefiting wildlife. Rangelands. 13(4): 177-180. [16114]
  • 23. Godfrey, Robert K. 1988. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of northern Florida and adjacent Georgia and Alabama. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 734 p. [10239]
  • 24. Gottschalk, Kurt W. 1988. Gypsy moth and regenerating Appalachian hardwood stands. In: Smith, H. Clay; Perkey, Arlyn W.; Kidd, William E., Jr., eds. Guidelines for regenerating Appalachian hardwood stands: Workshop proceedings; 1988 May 24-26; Morgantown, WV. SAF Publ. 88-03. Morgantown, WV: West Virginia University Books: 241-254. [13950]
  • 25. Hacker, David; Renfro, James. 1992. Great Smoky Mountain plants studied for ozone sensitivity. Park Science. 12(1): 6-7. [17788]
  • 26. Hopper, George; Houston, Allan; Buckner, Edward. 1991. Natural hardwood regeneration 6 years after clearcutting as influenced by herbicide injection and scalping. In: Coleman, Sandra S.; Neary, Daniel G., compilers. Proceedings, 6th biennial southern silvicultural research conference: Volume 1; 1990 October 30 - November 1; Memphis, TN. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-70. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station: 186-193. [17477]
  • 27. Hunter, Carl G. 1989. Trees, shrubs, and vines of Arkansas. Little Rock, AR: The Ozark Society Foundation. 207 p. [21266]
  • 28. Huntley, Jimmy C.; McGee, Charles E. 1981. Timber and wildlife implications of fire in young upland hardwoods. In: Barnett, James P., ed. Proceedings, 1st biennial southern silvicultural research conference; 1980 November 6-7; Atlanta, GA. Gen. Tech. Rep. SO-34. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station: 56-66. [12080]
  • 29. Johnson, E. W. 1963. Ornamental shrubs for the Southern Great Plains. Farmer's Bull. 2025. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 62 p. [12064]
  • 3. Anderson, Roger C.; Schwegman, John E. 1991. Twenty years of vegetational change on a southern Illinois barren. Natural Areas Journal. 11(2): 100-107. [16256]
  • 30. Johnson, Forrest L.; Risser, Paul G. 1975. A quantitative comparison between an oak forest and an oak savannah in central Oklahoma. Southwestern Naturalist. 20(1): 75-84. [11366]
  • 32. Kroll, James C. 1980. Habitat requirements of the golden-cheeked warbler: management implications. Journal of Range Management. 33(1): 60-65. [19844]
  • 34. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agric. Handb. 541. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 375 p. [2952]
  • 35. Martin, Christian J.; MacMillan, Paul C. 1982. Seven years of forest succession in Happy Valley, Jefferson County, Indiana. Indiana Academy of Science. 92: 197-206. [10369]
  • 36. McGee, Charles E. 1980. The effect of fire on species dominance in young upland hardwood stands. In: Proceedings, mid-south upland hardwood symposium for the practicing forester and land manager; [Date of conference unknown]
  • 37. McNiel, Robert E.; Carpenter, Philip L. 1974. Nitrogen fixation by woody plant species as measured by the acetylene reduction assay. Hortscience. 9(4): 381-382. [13491]
  • 38. Monk, Carl D. 1965. Southern mixed hardwood forest of northcentral Florida. Ecological Monographs. 35: 335-354. [9263]
  • 39. Oosting, Henry J. 1944. The comparative effect of surface and crown fire on the composition of a loblolly pine community. Ecology. 25(1): 61-69. [9919]
  • 4. Annala, Anne E.; Kapustka, Lawrence A. 1982. The microbial and vegetational response to fire in the Lynx Prairie Preserve, Adams County, Ohio. Prairie Naturalist. 14(4): 101-112. [2922]
  • 40. Olcott-Reid, Brenda. 1990. Xeriscaping: Landscaping to conserve water. Flower & Garden. 34(3): 44-45,66-69. [5182]
  • 41. Powell, A. Michael. 1988. Trees & shrubs of Trans-Pecos Texas including Big Bend and Guadalupe Mountains National Parks. Big Bend National Park, TX: Big Bend Natural History Association. 536 p. [6130]
  • 42. Probst, John R. 1979. Oak forest bird communities. In: DeGraaf, Richard M.; Evans, Keith E., compilers. Management of north central and northeastern forests for nongame birds: Proceedings of the workshop; 1979 January 23-25; Minneapolis, MN. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-51. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station: 80-88. [18080]
  • 43. Quarterman, Elsie; Keever, Catherine. 1962. Southern mixed hardwood forest: climax in the southeastern coastal plain, U.S.A. Ecological Monographs. 32: 167-185. [10801]
  • 45. Reichman, O. J. 1987. Grasslands. In: Konza Prairie: A tallgrass natural history. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas: 58-114. [4166]
  • 46. Rolston, M. Philip. 1978. Water impermeable seed dormancy. Botanical Review. 44(3): 365-396. [20266]
  • 47. Roy, Douglass F. 1974. Cercis L. redbud. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., technical coordinator. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 305-308. [7582]
  • 48. Shankman, David. 1990. Forest regeneration on abandoned agricultural fields in western Tennessee. Southeastern Geographer. 30(1): 36-47. [17640]
  • 49. Shotola, Steven J.; Weaver, G. T.; Robertson, P. A.; Ashby, W. C. 1992. Sugar maple invasion of an old-growth oak-hickory forest in southwestern Illinois. American Midland Naturalist. 127(1): 125-138. [17581]
  • 5. Armstrong, W. E. 1980. Impact of prescribed burning on wildlife. In: White, Larry D., ed. Prescribed range burning in the Edwards Plateau of Texas: Proceedings of a symposium; 1980 October 23; Junction, TX. College Station, TX: Texas Agricultural Extension Service, The Texas A&M University System: 22-26. [11430]
  • 50. Smith, G. Shannon; Pittcock, Kim. 1989. The collector's quest. American Nurseryman. 169(1): 56-65. [12243]
  • 52. Stritzke, Jimmy F.; Engle, David M.; McCollum, F. Ted. 1991. Vegetation management in the Cross Timbers: response of woody species to herbicides and burning. Weed Technology. 5(2): 400-405. [16395]
  • 53. Stubbendiek, James; Conard, Elverne C. 1989. Common legumes of the Great Plains: an illustrated guide. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. 330 p. [11049]
  • 54. Terborgh, John. 1985. The vertical component of plant species diversity in temperate and tropical forests. American Naturalist. 126(6): 760-776. [14093]
  • 56. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p. [7707]
  • 57. Vogel, Willis G. 1977. Revegetation of surface-mined lands in the East. In: Forests for people: A challenge in world affairs: Proc. of the Society of American Foresters 1977 national convention; 1977 October 2-6; Albuquerque, NM. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters: 167-172. [9949]
  • 58. Windus, Jennifer L.; Zito, Phil. 1988. Interventionist management of a shale barrens prairie in southern Ohio. Restoration & Management Notes. 6(1): 33-34. [4676]
  • 59. Young, James A.; Young, Cheryl G. 1986. Collecting, processing and germinating seeds of wildland plants. Portland, OR: Timber Press. 236 p. [12232]
  • 60. Nixon, Elray S. 1975. Successional stages in a hardwood bottomland forest near Dallas, Texas. Southwestern Naturalist. 20: 323-335. [12250]
  • 61. Boerner, Ralph E. J.; Cho, Do-Soon. 1987. Structure and composition of Goll Woods, an old-growth forest remnant in northwestern Ohio. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 114(2): 173-179. [8711]
  • 7. Billings, W. D. 1938. The structure and development of old field shortleaf pine stands and certain associated physical properties of the soil. Ecological Monographs. 8(3): 437-499. [10701]
  • 8. Bogle, Laurie A.; Engle, David M.; McCollum, F. Ted. 1989. Nutritive value of range plants in the Cross Timbers. Report P-908. Stillwater, OK: Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station. 29 p. [9293]
  • 9. Bragg, Thomas B.; Hulbert, Lloyd C. 1976. Woody plant invasion of unburned Kansas bluestem prairie. Journal of Range Management. 29(1): 19-24. [10383]
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  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp. External link.
  • CONABIO. 2009. Catálogo taxonómico de especies de México. 1. In Capital Nat. México. CONABIO, Mexico City.
  • Correll, D. S. & M. C. Johnston. 1970. Man. Vasc. Pl. Texas i–xv, 1–1881. The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson.
  • Correll,D.S. & Johnston,M.C. 1970. Man.Vasc.Pl.Texas. Texas Res. Found.,Renner 1881pp.
  • Fernald, M. 1950. Manual (ed. 8) i–lxiv, 1–1632. American Book Co., New York.
  • Gleason, H. A. & A.J. Cronquist. 1991. Man. Vasc. Pl. N.E. U.S. (ed. 2) i–910. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx.
  • Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Fl. Great Plains i–vii, 1–1392. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence.
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2014. Illinois Wildflowers. World Wide Web electronic publication., version 06/2014.
    See: Botanical Terminology and Line DrawingsEcological TerminologyWebsite DescriptionLinks to Other WebsitesReference Materials
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2015. Insect Visitors of Illinois Wildflowers.  World Wide Web electronic publication., version (03/2015) 
    See:   Abbreviations for Insect ActivitiesAbbreviations for Scientific ObserversReferences for behavioral observations
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  • Isely,D. 1975. Mem.New York Bot.Gard.25(2):1-228 Legum. of the U.S.: II.
  • Isely,D. 1990. Leguminosae, Vascular Flora S.E. U.S.A. 3(2) 1-258
  • Merrill,E.D. & Perry,L.M. 1948. J.Arnold Arbor.29(2):152-168.Papuan Collns.M.Strong Clemen
  • Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles & C. R. Bell. 1968. Man. Vasc. Fl. Carolinas i–lxi, 1–1183. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
  • Radford,A.E. er al. 1968. Man.of Vasc. Fl. of the Carolinas Fabaceae 569-645
  • Roskov Y.R., Bisby F.A. (†), Zarucchi J.L. & White R.J. (eds) (2013). ILDIS World Database of Legumes (version 10.04, Sep 2012). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Schwegman, J. E. 1991. The Vascular Flora of Langham Island, Kankakee County, Illinois. Erigenia 11: 1–8.
  • Small, J. K. 1933. Man. S.E. Fl. i–xxii, 1–1554. Published by the Author, New York.
  • Species Plantarum 1: 374. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.)
  • Viaggio Amer. Sett. 1785–87(2): 223. 1790. (Viaggio Amer. Sett.)
  • Wunderlin, R. P. 1998. Guide Vasc. Pl. Florida i–x, 1–806. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.
  • Yakovlev, G.P. 1987. In:Flora Partis Europaeae URSS, Vol.6. Leningrad.(Rus)
    1. Afanasiev, Michel. 1944. A study of dormancy and germination  of seeds of Cercis canadensis. Journal of  Agricultural Research 69:405-420.
    3. Baker, Whiteford L. 1972. Eastern forest insects. U.S.  Department of Agriculture, Miscellaneous Publication 1175.  Washington, DC. 642 p.
    5. Donselman, Henry M. 1976. Variation in native populations of  eastern redbud (Cercis canadensis L.) as influenced  by geographic location. Proceedings, Florida State  Horticulture Society 89:370-373.
    7. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United  States and Canada. Society of American Foresters,  Washington, DC. 148 p.
    9. Graham, E. H. 1941. Legumes for erosion control and  wildlife. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Miscellaneous  Publication 412. Washington, DC. 153 p.
    11. Hepting, George H. 1971. Diseases of forest and shade trees  of the United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Agriculture Handbook 386. Washington, DC. 658 p.
    13. Landers, J. Larry, and A. Sydney Johnson. 1976. Bobwhite  quail food habits in the southeastern United States with a  seed key to important foods. Tall Timbers Research Station,  Miscellaneous Publication 4. Tallahassee, FL. 90 p.
    15. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1977. Atlas of United States trees.  vol. 4: Minor eastern hardwoods. U.S. Department of  Agriculture, Miscellaneous Publication 1342. Washington, DC.  9 p., 166 maps.
    17. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States  trees (native and naturalized). U.S. Department of  Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 541. Washington, DC. 375  p.
    19. Lovell, Harvey B. 1961. Let's talk about honey plants.  Gleanings Bee Culture 89(2):99-100.
    21. Plummer, Gayther L. 1954. Cercis canadensis L.; An  ecological life history. Thesis (Ph.D.), Purdue University,  Lafayette, IN. 300 p.
    23. Read, Ralph A. 1952. Tree species occurrence as influenced  by geology and soil on an Ozark north slope. Ecology  33:239-246.
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