Brief SummaryRead full entry
BiologyThe kaka-beak has flowers with both male and female reproductive organs. The main flowering period is from September to December, although flowering can occur all year round and some plants have two or more flowering periods over a year (7). Birds are generally credited with its pollination, however, the flowers do not appear to produce much nectar and so they may not be critical. The kaka-beak may be mainly self-pollinating as the pollen ripens just as the flowers open up. The dry and floury pollen may quickly fall or roll down the curving keel until it reaches the tip of the stigma and pollinates it (6). Seeds are dispersed in a number of ways. Seeds and pods float, and may be water-dispersed in rivers or on lakes, and when pods dry out they often open out into a sail-like structure, and could be easily carried a considerable distance by wind, with seeds attached (7). The kaka-beak is commonly attacked by insects and browsed by deer, goats and domestic livestock. The plants, and in particular seedlings, are also highly vulnerable to attack by introduced slugs (Deroceias spp.) and brown snails (Helix aspersa), and the Armillaria fungus is known to kill cultivated seedlings (7).