The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Agosti, D., D. Grimaldi, and J. M. Carpenter. 1997. Oldest known ant fossils discovered. Nature 391: 447.
  • Attenborough, D. 1995. The Private Life of Plants: A Natural History of Plant Behavior. London: BBC Books. 320 p.
  • Baroni Urbani, C. 2000. Rediscovery of the Baltic amber ant genus Prionomyrmex (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) and its taxonomic consequences. Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae 93: 471-480.
  • Baroni Urbani, C., B. Bolton and P. S. Ward. 1992. The internal phylogeny of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Systematic Entomology 17: 301-329.
  • Bodanis, D. 1992. The Secret Garden: Dawn to Dusk in the Astonishing Hidden World of the Garden. Simon & Schuster. 187 p.
  • Bolton, B. 1995. A New General Catalogue of the Ants of the World. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Bolton, B. 1994. Identification Guide to the Ant Genera of the World. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and Classification of Formicidae. 370 pp. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute, Vol. 71. Gainesville, FL.
  • Brady, S. 2003. Evolution of the army ant syndrome: the origin and long-term evolutionary stasis of a complex of behavioral and reproductive adaptations. PNAS 100(11): 6575-6579.
  • Brown, W. L., Jr. 1954. Remarks on the internal phylogeny and subfamily classification of the family Formicidae. Insectes Sociaux 1:21-31.
  • Cheng, L. (2015). Formicidae Latreille, 1809. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • Crozier, R. H., L. S. Jermiin, and M. Chiotis. 1997. Molecular evidence for a Jurassic origin of ants. Naturwissenschaften 84: 22-23.
  • Formicidae
  • Franks NR; Richardson TO; Keir S; Inge SJ; Bartumeus F; Sendova-Franks AB. 2010. Ant search strategies after interrupted tandem runs. Journal of Experimental Biology. 213: 1697-1708.
  • Grimaldi, D. and D. Agosti. 2000. A formicine in New Jersey Cretaceous amber (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and early evolution of the ants. PNAS 97: 13678-13683.
  • Grimaldi, D., D. Agosti, and J. M. Carpenter. 1997. New and rediscovered primitive ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Cretaceous amber from New Jersey, and their phylogenetic relationships. American Museum Novitates 3208: 1-43.
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2015. Insect Visitors of Illinois Wildflowers.  World Wide Web electronic publication., version (09/2015) 
    See:   Abbreviations for Insect ActivitiesAbbreviations for Scientific ObserversReferences for behavioral observations
  • Hölldobler, B. and E. O. Wilson. 1990. The Ants. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 16, 2011 at
  • Paul J; Roces F, Hölldobler. 2002. How do ants stick out their tongues?. Journal of Morphology. 254(1): 39-52.
  • Rust, J. and N. M. Andersen. 1999. Giant ants from the Paleogene of Denmark with a discussion of the fossil history and early evolution of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 125: 331-348.
  • Saux, C., B. L. Fisher, and G. S. Spicer. 2004. Dracula ant phylogeny as inferred by nuclear 28S rDNA sequences and implications for ant systematics (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Amblyoponinae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 33: 457-468.
  • Schultz, T. R. 2000. In search of ant ancestors. PNAS 97(26): 14028-14029.
  • Sendova-Franks AB; Hayward RK; Wulf B; Klimek T; James R; Planqué R; Britton NF; Franks NR. 2010. Emergency networking: famine relief in ant colonies. Animal Behaviour. 79(2): 473-485.
  • Shattuck, S. O. 1992. Higher classification of the ant subfamilies Aneuretinae, Dolichoderinae and Formicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Systematic Entomology 17: 199-206.
  • Viegas J. 2010. Poison-taster ants help save colonies. Discovery News [Internet],
  • Waide RB, Reagan WB (eds) (1996) The food web of a tropical rainforest. University of Chicago Press, Chicago
  • Ward, P. S. (2005): A synoptic review of the ants of California (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa 936, 1-68: 20-25, URL:
  • Ward, P. S. 1994. Adetomyrma, an enigmatic new ant genus from Madagascar (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), and its implications for ant phylogeny. Systematic Entomology 19: 159-175.
  • Ward, P. S., 2005, A synoptic review of the ants of California (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa, pp. 1-68, vol. 936
  • Ward, P. S., B. B. Bolton, S. O. Shattuck, and W. L. Brown, Jr. 1996. A bibliography of ant systematics. University of California Publications in Entomology 116:1-417.
  • Wheeler, G. C. & Wheeler, J. 1976. Ant larvae: review and synthesis. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Washington 74: 1-108.
  • Wilson, E. O. 1987. The earliest known ants: an analysis of the Cretaceous species and an inference concerning their social organization. Paleobiology 13(1): 44-53.
  • Wilson, E. O., F. M. Carpenter, and W. L. Brown, Jr. 1967. The first Mesozoic ants. Science 157: 1038-1040.
  • Yoshimura, M., 2007, A revision of male ants of the Malagasy region (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): Key to subfamilies and treatment of the genera of Ponerinae., Zootaxa, pp. 21-40, vol. 1654
  • Yoshimura, M., Fisher, B. L. (2007): A revision of male ants of the Malagasy region (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): Key to subfamilies and treatment of the genera of Ponerinae. Zootaxa 1654, 21-40: 28-28, URL:


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