The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


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  • Ali,S.I. 1977. Papilion. In:Flora of West Pakistan, No 100.
  • Barneby,R.C. 1989. Fabales.In:A.Cronquist et al.Intermountain Fl.3B:1-20,27-279
  • CONABIO. 2009. Catálogo taxonómico de especies de México. 1. In Capital Nat. México. CONABIO, Mexico City.
  • Converse, C. 1985. Element Stewardship Abstract for Robinia pseudoacacia. The Nature Conservancy.
  • Correll, D. S. & M. C. Johnston. 1970. Man. Vasc. Pl. Texas i–xv, 1–1881. The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson.
  • Czerepanov,S.K. 1981. Plantae Vasculares, URSS. Leningrad.
  • Ding, C.S. 1994. Sarcodum &.. In:Fl.Reip.Pop.Sinicae, 40 (Leguminosae 2)
  • Fernald, M. 1950. Manual (ed. 8) i–lxiv, 1–1632. American Book Co., New York.
  • Flora of China Editorial Committee. 1988-2013. Flora of China (Checklist & Addendum). Unpaginated. In C. Y. Wu, P. H. Raven & D. Y. Hong (eds.) Fl. China. Science Press & Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing & St. Louis.
  • Gleason, H. A. & A.J. Cronquist. 1991. Man. Vasc. Pl. N.E. U.S. (ed. 2) i–910. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx.
  • Gorschkova, S.G. 1941. In:Flora URSS, Vol.11. Mosqua, Leningrad. (Rus)
  • Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Fl. Great Plains i–vii, 1–1392. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence.
  • Grossheim, A.A. 1952. Flora Kavkaza, Vol.5. Moscow,Leningrad. (Rus)
  • Heim, J. 1990. Illinois Nature Preserves Commission Vegetation Management Guideline on Black Locust. Illinois Nature Preserve Commission, Springfield, IL.
  • Heywood,V.H. & Ball,P.W. 1968. Leguminosae.In:Flora Europaea Vol.2.ed.Tutin, al.
  • Hickman, J. C. 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California 1–1400. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2015. Insect Visitors of Illinois Wildflowers.  World Wide Web electronic publication., version (09/2015) 
    See:   Abbreviations for Insect ActivitiesAbbreviations for Scientific ObserversReferences for behavioral observations
  • Holotype: Rose, J. N. 1909. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 12: 274.
  • ISSG, 2005. Robinia pseudoacacia. Global Invasive Species Database. Invasive Species Specialist Group, IUCN :
  • Image metadata at Bioimages ( External link.
  • Isely,D. & Peabody,F.J. 1984. Castanea 49(4):187-202 Robinia (Leguminosae: Papillionoidea)
  • Isely,D. 1990. Leguminosae, Vascular Flora S.E. U.S.A. 3(2) 1-258
  • Isotype: Rose, J. N. 1909. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 12: 274.
  • Linnaeus,C.von. 1753. Sp.Pl.
  • Marticorena C & R Rodríguez . 1995-2005. Flora de Chile. Vols 1, 2(1-3). Ed. Universidad de Concepción, Concepción. 351 pp., 99 pp., 93 pp., 128 pp. Matthei O. 1995. Manual de las malezas que crecen en Chile. Alfabeta Impresores. 545 p.
  • Molina Rosito, A. 1975. Enumeración de las plantas de Honduras. Ceiba 19(1): 1–118.
  • Munz, P. A. & D. D. Keck. 1959. Cal. Fl. 1–1681. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Munz, P. A. 1974. Fl. S. Calif. 1–1086. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Pavlova,N.S. 1989. Fabaceae. In Plantae..Orientis Extremi.Vol.4.Leningrad(Rus)
  • Polhill,R,M. 1990. Legumineuses.In:Flore des Mascareignes,Vol 80.J. Bosser et a
  • Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles & C. R. Bell. 1968. Man. Vasc. Fl. Carolinas i–lxi, 1–1183. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
  • Rev. Hort., ser. ?, 155. 1873. (Rev. Hort., ser. ?,)
  • Robinia pseudoacacia "Frisia"
  • Robinia pseudoacacia L.
  • Roskov Y., Zarucchi J., Novoselova M. & Bisby F.(†) (eds) (2015). ILDIS World Database of Legumes (version 12, May 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Sanjappa,M. 1992. Legumes of India. Dehra Dun: Bishen Singh Mahendra..
  • Shipchinski, N. & Sokolov, S. 1958. In:Dereviya i kustarniki SSSR,Vol.4.Moscow,Leningrad.(Rus)
  • Small, J. K. 1933. Man. S.E. Fl. i–xxii, 1–1554. Published by the Author, New York.
  • Species Plantarum 2: 722. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.)
  • Swearingen, J. 2009. WeedUS Database of Plants Invading Natural Areas in the United States: Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia).
  • The Nature Conservancy. Black Locust: Element Stewardship Abstract. In: Wildland Weeds Management & Research Program, Weeds on the Web.
  • Turner,B.L. 1959. Univ. of Texas Press, Austin. 284 pp The Legumes of Texas
  • USDA, NRCS. 2009. The PLANTS Database ( National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.
  • Vassilczenko, I.T. 1987. In:Flora Partis Europaeae URSS, Vol.6. Leningrad.(Rus)
  • Wunderlin, R. P. 1998. Guide Vasc. Pl. Florida i–x, 1–806. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.
  • Zuloaga, F. O., O. N. Morrone, M. J. Belgrano, C. Marticorena & E. Marchesi. (eds.) 2008. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares del Cono Sur. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 107(1–3): i–xcvi, 1–3348.
    1. Allen, John C. 1953. A half century of reforestation in the  Tennessee Valley. Journal of Forestry 51(2):106-113.
    3. Anderson, Roger C., and Lauren E. Brown. 1980. Influence of  a prescribed burn on colonizing black locust. In  Proceedings, Central Hardwood Forestry Conference  III. p. 330-336. Harold E. Garrett and Gene S. Cox, eds.  Sept. 1980, University of Missouri, Columbia.
    5. Baker, Whiteford L. 1972. Eastern forest insects. U.S.  Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 1175.  Washington, DC. 642 p.
    7. Beck, D. E., and C. E. McGee. 1974. Locust sprouts reduce  growth of yellow-poplar seedlings. USDA Forest Service,  Research Note SE-201. Southeastern Forest Experiment  Station, Asheville, NC. 6 p.
    9. Boyce, Stephen G., and David J. Neebe. 1959. Trees for  planting on strip-mined land in Illinois. USDA Forest  Service, Technical Paper 164. Central States Forest  Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN. 33 p.
    11. Braun, Lucy E. 1950. Deciduous forests of eastern North  America. Blakiston, Philadelphia, PA. 596 p.
    13. Brown, James H. 1962. Success of tree plantings on  strip-mined areas in West Virginia. West Virginia University  Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin 473. Morgantown.  35 p.
    15. Brown, James H. 1973. Height growth predictions for black  locust on surface-mined areas in West Virginia. West  Virginia University Agricultural Experiment Station,  Bulletin 617. Morgantown. 11 p.
    17. Conner, Richard N., Robert G. Hooper, Hewlette S. Crawford,  and Henry S. Mosby. 1975. Woodpecker nesting habitat in cut  and uncut woodlands in Virginia. Journal of Wildlife  Management 39(l):144-150.
    19. Cutler, D. F. 1978. Survey and identification of tree roots.  (Abstract.) Arboriculture Journal 3(4):243-246.
    21. Czapowskyj, Miroslaw M., and William E. McQuilkin, 1966.  Survival and early growth of planted forest trees on  strip-mine spoils in the anthracite region. USDA Forest  Service, Research Paper NE-46. Northeastern Forest  Experiment Station, Broomall, PA. 29 p.
    23. Davidson, Walter H. 1981. Personal communication.  Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Princeton, WV.
    25. Delia-Bianca, Lino, and Frank M. Johnson. 1965. Effect of an  intensive cleaning on deer-browse production of the Southern  Appalachians. Journal of Wildlife Management 29(4):729-733. 
    27. Eigel, Robert A., Robert F. Wittwer, and Stanley B. Carpenter.  1980. Biomass and nutrient accumulation in young black  locust stands established by direct seeding on surface mines  in eastern Kentucky. In Proceedings, Central  Hardwood Forestry Conference 111. p. 337-346. Harold E.  Garrett and Gene S. Cox, eds. University of Missouri,  Columbia.
    29. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United  States and Canada. Society of American Foresters,  Washington, DC. 148 p.
    31. Geyer, Wayne A., and Gary G. Naughton. 1980. Biomass yield  and cost analysis (4th year) of various tree species grown  under a short rotation management scheme in eastern Kansas.  In Proceedings, Central Hardwood Forestry Conference  III. p. 315-329. Harold E. Garrett and Gene S. Cox, eds.  University of Missouri, Columbia.
    33. Gouin, F. R. 1979. Controlling brambles in established  Christmas tree plantations with glyphosate. HortScience  14(2):189-190.
    35. Harlow, William M., Ellwood S. Harrar, and Fred M.White.  1979. Textbook of dendrology. 6th ed. McGraw-Hill, New York.  512 p.
    37. Harrar, Ellwood S., and J. George Harrar. 1962. Guide to  southern trees. Dover Publications, New York. 709 p.
    39. Hart, George, and William R. Byrnes. 1960. Trees for  strip-mine lands. USDA Forest Service, Station Paper 136.  Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Broomall, PA. 36 p. 
    41. Hepting, George H. 1971. Diseases of forest and shade trees  of the United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Agriculture Handbook 386. Washington, DC. 658 p.
    43. Huang, H., F. C. Cech, and R. B. Clarkson. 1975. A  comparative investigation of soluble protein polymorphism in  Robinia pseudoacacia roots by polyacrylamide gel  electrophoresis. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology  3(3):143-147.
    45. Keresztesi, B. 1974. Some problems in the development of  Hugarian forestry. (Abstract.) Agartudornanyi Kozlemenyek  33(24):285-301. (Hungarian.)
    47. Kim, C. S., and S. K. Lee. 1973. Morphological and  cytological characteristics of a spontaneous tetraploid of  Robinia pseudoacacia. (Abstract.) The Institute of  Forest Genetics, Research Report 10. Republic of Korea. p.  57-65.
    49. Limstrom, G. A., and G. H. Deitschman. 1951. Reclaiming  Illinois strip coal lands by forest planting. p. 201-250.  University of Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station,  Bulletin 457. Urbana.
    51. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1971. Atlas of United States trees,  vol. 1. Conifers and important hardwoods. U.S. Department of  Agriculture, Miscellaneous Publication 1146. Washington, DC.  9 p., 313 maps.
    53. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States  trees (native and naturalized). U.S. Department of  Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 541. Washington, DC. 375  p.
    55. McGee, Charles E., and Ralph M. Hooper. 1975. Regeneration  trends 10 years after clearcutting of an Appalachian  hardwood stand. USDA Forest Service, Research Note SE-227.  Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, Asheville, NC. 3 p. 
    57. Maisenhelder, Louis C. 1969. Identifying juvenile seedlings  in southern hardwood forests. USDA Forest Service, Research  Paper SO-47. Southern Forest Experiment Station, New  Orleans, I-A. 77 p.
    59. Martin, Alexander C., Herbert S. Zim, and Arnold L. Nelson.  1951. American wildlife and plants: a guide to wildlife food  habits. Dover Publications, New York. 500 p.
    61. Matyas, C. 1979. Results in breeding of certain tree  species. (Abstract.) Erdo 28(3):124-127. (Hungarian.)
    63. Meade, Fayette M. 1951. Forest plantations in Arkansas.  University of Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station  Bulletin 512. Fayetteville. 50 p.
    65. Mergen, Francois. 1963. Possibilities of genetical  improvement in hardwoods. Journal of Forestry  61(11):834-839.
    67. Olson, David F. 1974. Robinia L., locust. In  Seeds of woody plants in the United States. p. 728-731.  C. S. Schopmeyer, tech. coord. U.S. Department of  Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 450. Washington, DC. 883  p.
    69. Polcin, J. 1974. Robinia pseudoacacia as raw  material for pulp. (Abstract.) Symposium Internacional EU CE  PA, Madrid, Paper 18. 15 p.
    71. Riley, Charles V. 1957. Reclamation of coal strip-mined  lands with reference to wildlife plantings. Journal of  Wildlife Management 21(4):402-413.
    73. Roach, Benjamin A. 1965. Black locust (Robinia  pseudoacacia L.). In Silvics of forest trees of  the United States. p. 642-648. H. A. Fowells, comp. U.S.  Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 271.  Washington, DC.
    75. Sawyer, J. 0., Jr., and A. A. Lindsey. 1964. The Holdridge  bioclimatic formations of eastern and central United States.  Proceedings Indiana Academy of Science 72:105-112.
    77. Seidel, K. W., and K. A. Brinkman. 1962. Mixed or pure  walnut plantings on strip-mined land in Kansas? USDA Forest  Service, Technical Paper 187. Central States Forest  Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN. 10 p.
    79. Sickle, G. A. van. 1974. Nectria canker: A problem on black  locust in New Brunswick. Plant Disease Reporter  58(10):872-874.
    81. Soil Conservation Service, comp. 1970. Distribution of  principal kinds of soils: orders, suborders, and great  groups. In The National Atlas, p. 86. U.S. Department of the  Interior, Geological Survey, Washington, DC.
    83. Strode, Donald D. 1977. Black locust Robinia  pseudoacacia L. In South fruit-producing woody  plants used by wildlife. p. 215-216. Lowell K. Halls, ed.  USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report SO-16.  Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, LA.
    85. Thornwaite, C. W. 1931. The climates of North America  according to a new classification. Geographical Review  21:633-655.
    87. Trimble, George R. 1975. Summaries of some silvical  characteristics of several Appalachian hardwood trees. USDA  Forest Service, General Technical Report NE-16. Northeastern  Forest Experiment Station, Broomall, PA. 5 p.
    89. U.S. Department of Commerce, Environmental Science Services  Administration. 1968. Climatic atlas of the United States.  Washington, DC. 80 p.
    91. Whittaker, R. H. 1956. Vegetation of the Great Smoky  Mountains. Ecological Monographs 26:1-80.


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