The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 2010. "Integrated Pest Management Manual- Fleas" (On-line). National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. Accessed April 02, 2010 at
  • Azad, A. 1990. Epidemiology of Murine Typhus. Annual Review of Entomology, 35: 553-569.
  • Azad, A., S. Radulovic, J. Higgins, B. Noden, J. Troyer. 1997. Flea-borne Rickettsioses: Ecologic Considerations. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 3: 319-327. Accessed February 17, 2010 at
  • Barrett, J., P. Brophy. 2008. "Parasitic Arthropods I" (On-line). Aberystwyth University Parasitology Group: homepage. Accessed April 02, 2010 at
  • Brouqui, P., D. Raoult. 2006. Arthropod-Borne Diseases in Homeless. Annals New York Academy of Sciences, 1078: 223-235.
  • Buckland, P., J. Sadler. 1989. A Biogeography of the Human Flea, Pulex irritans L. (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae). Journal of Biogeography, 16: 115-120. Accessed February 08, 2010 at
  • Chandler, A. 1922. Animal Parasites and Human Disease. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. Accessed April 01, 2010 at
  • Eads, R. 1948. Ectoparasites from a Series of Texas Coyotes. Journal of Mammalogy, 29: 268-271. Accessed February 09, 2010 at
  • Hopkins G.H.E., Rothschild M. 1953. An illustrated catalogue of the Rothschild collection of fleas (Siphonaptera) in the British Museum
  • Irons, J., R. Eads, C. Johnson, O. Walker, M. Norris. 1952. Southwest Texas Q Fever Studies. The Journal of Parasitology, 38: 1-5. Accessed February 09, 2010 at
  • Kellogg, V. 1908. American Insects. New York: Henry Holt and Company. Accessed March 08, 2010 at
  • Kelly, C., T. Fellers, M. Davidson. 2009. "Human Flea (Pulex irritans)" (On-line). Olympus Microscopy, Darkfield Digital Image Gallery. Accessed April 02, 2010 at
  • Kerr, J. 1921. Zoology for Medical Students. London: MacMillan and Co., Limited. Accessed April 01, 2010 at
  • Laudisoit, A., H. Leirs, R. Makundi, S. Van Dongen, S. Davis, S. Neerinckx, J. Deckers, R. Libois. 2007. Plague and the Human Flea, Tanzania. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13: 687-693.
  • Medvedev S., Lobanov A. & Lyangouzov I. (2015). Parhost: World Database of Fleas (version 2, Nov 2005). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Mullen, G., L. Durden. 2009. Medical and Veterinary Entomology: Second Edition. Burlington, MA: Elsevier, Inc. Accessed April 15, 2010 at
  • Perez-Martinez, L., J. Venzal, D. Gonzalez-Acuna, A. Portillo, J. Blanco, J. Oteo. 2009. Bartonella rochalimae and Other Bartonella spp. in Fleas, Chile. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15: 1150-1152. Accessed February 17, 2010 at
  • Raoult, D., B. La Scola, M. Enea, P. Fournier, V. Roux, F. Fenollar, M. Galvao, X. de Lamballerie. 2001. A Flea-Associated Rickettsia Pathogenic for Huamsn. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7: 73-81.
  • Roberts, L., J. Janovy. 2009. Gerald D. Schmidt & Larry S. Roberts' Foundations of Parasitology. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  • Rolain, J., O. Bourry, B. Davoust, D. Raoult. 2005. Bartonella quintana and Rickettsia felis in Gabon. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11: 1742-1744.
  • Ruiz, A. 2001. Plague in the Americas. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7: 539-540.
  • Smit, F. 1958. A Preliminary Note on the Occurence of Pulex irritans L. and Pulex simulans Baker in North America. The Journal of Parasitology, 44: 523-526. Accessed February 08, 2010 at
  • Sutton, R. 1916. Diseases of the Skin. St. Louis: C.V. Mosby Company. Accessed April 15, 2010 at
  • Theobald, F. 1892. An Account of British Flies (Diptera). London: Elliot Stock, 62, Paternoster Row, E.C.. Accessed March 31, 2010 at
  • Ugbomoiko, U., L. Ariza, J. Heukelbach. 2008. Parasites of importance for human health in Nigerian dogs: high prevalence and limited knowledge of pet owners. BMC Veterinary Research, 4: 1-9.
  • Whiting, M., A. Whiting, M. Hastriter, K. Dittmar. 2008. A molecular phylogeny of flea (Insecta: Siphonaptera): origins and host associations. Cladistics, 24: 1-31.


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