Known prey organisms
Based on studies in:
Malaysia, W. Malaysia (Plant substrate)
This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
- R. A. Beaver, 1985. Geographical variation in food web structure in Nepenthes pitcher plants. Ecol. Entomol. 10:241-248, from p. 243.
- R. A. Beaver, Fauna and food webs of pitcher plants in West Malaysia, The Malayan Nature Journal 33(1):1-10, from p. 8 (1979).
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Statistics of barcoding coverage
Specimens with Sequences:1025
Specimens with Barcodes:648
Species With Barcodes:74
The Encyrtidae are a large family of parasitic wasps, with some 3710 described species in about 455 genera. The larvae of the majority are primary parasitoids on Hemiptera, though other hosts are attacked, and details of the life history can be variable (e.g., some attack eggs, some attack larvae, others are hyperparasites, and some Encyrtidae develop as parasitoids of ticks). They are found throughout the world in virtually all habitats, and are extremely important as biological control agents.
Some species exhibit a remarkable developmental phenomenon called "polyembryony", in which a single egg multiplies clonally in the host and produces large numbers of identical adult wasps. Even more remarkably, some of the larvae are larger than the others and act in a similar way to the "soldiers" of eusocial insects, attacking any other wasp larvae already in the body of the host, and dying without reproducing ("altruism").
Wasps in this family are relatively easy to separate from other Chalcidoidea by features of the wing venation, the migration of the cerci forwards on the metasoma (and accompanying distortion of the tergites), and a greatly enlarged mesopleuron with anteriorly positioned mesocoxae.
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