The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • C. D. Harvell, “The ecology and evolution of inducible defences in a marine bryozoan: cues, costs and consequences.”, The American Naturalist, vol. 128, no. 6, pp. 810-823, 1986.
  • Hayward, P. (2004). Membranipora de Blainville, 1830. In: Bock, P.; Gordon, D. (2016). World List of Bryozoa. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • M. I. Saunders and A. Metaxas, “ High recruitment of the introduced bryozoan Membranipora membranacea is associated with kelp bed defoliation in Nova Scotia, Canada”, Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol. 369, 2008.
  • M. I. Saunders and A. Metaxas, “Population dynamics of a nonindigenous epiphytic bryozoan Membranipora membranacea in the western North Atlantic: effects of kelp substrate”, Aquatic Biology, vol. 8, 2009.
  • Stocks, K. 2009. Seamounts Online: an online information system for seamount biology. Version 2009-1. World Wide Web electronic publication.


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