The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Altringham, J. 1996. Bats: Biology and Behaviour. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Andriafidison, D., R. Andrianaivoarivelo, O. Ramillijaona, M. Razanahoera, J. MacKinnon, R. Jenkins, P. Racey. 2006. Nectarivory by endemic malagasy fruit bats during the dry season. Biotropica, 38/1: 85-90.
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner. 1987. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. Resource Publication, no. 166. 79
  • Cox, P., T. Elmquist, E. Pierson, W. Rainey. 2005. Flying Foxes as Strong Interactors in South Pacific Island Ecosystems: A Conservation Hypothesis. Conservation Biology, 5/4: 448-454.
  • Fenton, M. 2001. Bats, Revised Edition. New York, NY: Checkmark Books.
  • Hood, C., J. Smith. 1989. Sperm storage in a tropical nectar-feeding bat, Macroglossus minimus (Pteropodidae). Journal of Mammalogy, 70: 404-406.
  • IUCN 2008, 2008. "2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species" (On-line). Accessed February 16, 2009 at
  • J. L. Harrison, The distribution of feeding habits among animals in a tropical rain forest, J. Anim. Ecol. 31:53-63, from p. 61 (1962).
  • Kofron, C. 2007. Reproduction of the dusky fruit bat Penthetor lucasi (Pteropodidae) in Brunei, Borneo. Mammalia: 166-171.
  • Koopman, K. 1994. Handbook of Zoology, Band/Volume VIII Mammalia. Berlin, Germany: Walter de Gruyter & Co..
  • Kretschmann, K., R. Hayes. 2004. Old World Fruit Bats I (Pteropus). Pp. 319-332 in M Hutchins, A Evans, J Jackson, eds. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, Vol. 13: Mammals II, 2 Edition. Detroit: Gale.
  • Kunz, T., M. Fenton. 2003. Bat Ecology. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.
  • Mainoya, J., K. Howell. 1979. Histology of the neck glandular skin patch in Eidolon helvum, Rousettus aegyptiacus and Rousettus angolensis chiroptera pteropodidae. African Journal of Ecology, 17: 159-164.
  • Mickleburgh, S., A. Hutson, P. Racey. 1992. Old World Fruit Bats: An Action Plan for their Conservation. Gland, Switzerland: International Union for the Conservation of Nature.
  • Myers, P. 2001. "Animal Diversity Web" (On-line). Accessed 2-11-09 at
  • Neuweiler, G. 2000. The Biology of Bats. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Nowak, R. 1994. Walker's Bats of the World. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Nowak, R. 1999. Walker's Mammals of the World. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Simmons, Nancy B. / Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Order Chiroptera. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2. 312-529
  • Storz, J., H. Bhat, T. Kunz. 2000. Social structure of a polygynous tent-making bat, Cynopterus sphinx (Megachiroptera). Journal of Zoology, London, 251: 151-165.
  • Teeling, E., M. Springer, O. Madsen, P. Bates, S. O'Brien, W. Murphy. 2005. A Molecular Phylogeny for Bats Illuminates Biogeography and Fossil Record. Science, 307: 580-584. Accessed February 12, 2009 at
  • Teeling, Emma C., Mark S. Springer, Ole Madsen, Paul Bates, Stephen O'Brien, and William J. Murphy. 2005. A molecular phylogeny for bats illuminates biogeography and the fossil record. Science, vol. 307, no. 5709. 580-584
  • Van Parijs, S., P. Corkeron. 2002. Ontogeny of vocalisations in infant black flying foxes, Pteropus alecto. Behaviour, 139/9: 1111-1124.
  • Vaughn, T., J. Ryan, N. Czaplewski. 2000. Mammalogy. Fourth Edition. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders College Publishing.
  • Wilson, D., D. Reeder. 2005. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. 3rd ed.. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1993. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing. xviii + 1207
  • Zubaid, A., G. McCracken, T. Kunz. 2006. Functional and Evolutionary Ecology of Bats. New Yory, NY: Oxford University Press.


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