The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Attenborough, D. 1979. Life on earth. Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Company. 319 p.
  • B. C. Patten and J. T. Finn, Systems approach to continental shelf ecosystems. In: Theoretical Systems Ecology, E. Halfon, Ed. (Academic Press, New York, 1979) pp. 183-212 from p. 202.
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner. 1987. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. Resource Publication, no. 166. 79
  • Boisserie, J., F. Lihoreau, M. Brunet. 2005. The position of Hippopotamidae within Cetartiodactyla. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 102: 1537-1541.
  • Carey, J., D. Judge. 2002. "Longevity Records: Life Spans of Mammals, Birds, Amphibians, Reptiles, and Fish" (On-line). Accessed November 28, 2005 at
  • Cassens, I., S. Vicario, V. Waddell, H. Balchowsky, D. Van Belle, W. Ding, C. Fan, R. Lal Mohan, P. Simoes-Lopes, R. Bastida, A. Meyer, M. Stanhope, M. Milinkovitch. 2000. Independent adaptation to riverine habitats allowed survival of ancient cetacean lineages. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 97: 11343-11347.
  • G. A. Knox, Antarctic marine ecosystems. In: Antarctic Ecology, M. W. Holdgate, Ed. (Academic Press, New York, 1970) 1:69-96, from p. 87.
  • Gatesy, J. 1997. More DNA support for a Cetacea/Hippopotamidae clade: The blood-clotting protein gene Y-Fibrinogen. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 14(5): 537-543.
  • Gatesy, J., C. Hayashi, M. Cronin, P. Arctander. 1996. Evidence from milk casein genes that cetaceans are close relatives of hippopotamid artiodactyls. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 13(7): 954-963.
  • Gatesy, J., V. Milinkovitch, M. Waddell, M. Stanhope. 1999. Stability of cladistic relationships between Cetacea and higher-level artiodactyl taxa. Systematic Biology, 48(1): 6-20.
  • Geisler, J., A. Sanders. 2003. Morphological evidence for the phylogeny of Cetacea. Journal of Mammalian Evolution, 10(1/2): 23-129.
  • George, J., J. Bada, J. Zeh, L. Scott, S. Brown. 1999. Age and growth estimates of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) via aspartic acid racemization. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 78: 1182-1198.
  • Gingerich, P., M. ul Haq, I. Zalmout, I. Khan, M. Malkani. 2001. Origin of whales from early artiodactyls: Hands and feet of Eocene Protocetidae from Pakistan. Science, 293: 2239-2242.
  • Graur, D., D. Higgins. 1994. Molecular evidence for the inclusion of cetaceans within the order Artiodactyla. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 11(3): 357-364.
  • IUCN, 2004. "2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species" (On-line). Accessed November 28, 2005 at
  • Mead, James G., and Robert L. Brownell, Jr. / Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Order Cetacea. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vol. 1. 723-743
  • Messenger, S., J. McGuire. 1998. Morphology, molecules, and the phylogenetics of cetaceans. Systematic Biology, 47(1): 90-124.
  • Milinkovitch, M., G. Orti, A. Meyer. 1993. Revised phylogeny of whales suggested by mitochondrial ribosomal DNA sequences. Nature, 361: 346-348.
  • Montgelard, C., F. Catzeflis, E. Douzery. 1997. Phylogenetic relationships of artiodactyls and cetaceans as deduced from the comparison of cytochrome b and 12S rRNA mitochondrial sequences. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 14(5): 550-559.
  • Nikaido, M., F. Matsuno, H. Hamilton, R. Brownell Jr., Y. Cao, W. Ding, Z. Zuoyan, A. Shedlock, R. Fordyce, M. Hasegawa, N. Okada. 2001. Phylogenetic relationships among cetartiodactyls based on insertions of short and. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 98: 7384-7389.
  • Nowak, R. 1999. Walker's Mammals of the World, vol. II. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • O'Leary, M., J. Geisler. 1999. The position of Cetacea within Mammalia: Phylogenetic analysis of morphological data from extinct and extant taxa. Systematic Biology, 48(3): 455-490.
  • Price, S., O. Bininda-Emonds, J. Gittleman. 2005. A complete phylogeny of the whales, dolphins and even-toed hoofed mammals (Cetartiodactyla). Biological Reviews, 80: 445-473.
  • Reeves, R., B. Stewart, P. Clapham, J. Powell. 2002. National Audobon Society Guide to Marine Mammals of the World. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
  • Rice, D. 1984. Cetaceans. Pp. 447-490 in S Anderson, J Jones Jr., eds. Orders and Families of Recent Mammals of the World. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
  • Rice, Dale W. 1998. Marine Mammals of the World: Systematics and Distribution. Special Publications of the Society for Marine Mammals, no. 4. ix + 231
  • Sasaki, T., M. Nikaido, H. Hamilton, M. Goto, H. Kato, N. Kanda, Y. Cao, R. Fordyce, M. Hasegawa, N. Okada. 2005. Mitochondrial phylogenetics and evolution of mysticete whales. Systematic Biology, 54(1): 77-90.
  • Shimamura, M., H. Yasue, K. Ohshima, H. Abe, H. Kato, T. Kishiro, M. Goto, I. Munechika, N. Okada. 1997. Molecular evidence from retroposons that whales form a clade within even-toed ungulates. Nature, 388: 666-670.
  • Shuker, KPN. 2001. The Hidden Powers of Animals: Uncovering the Secrets of Nature. London: Marshall Editions Ltd. 240 p.
  • Thewissen, J., E. Williams, S. Hussain. 2001. Skeletons of terrestrial cetaceans and the relationship of whales to artiodactyls. Nature, 413: 277-281.
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1993. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing. xviii + 1207
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World. xiv + 204
  • Wilson, Don E., and Sue Ruff, eds. 1999. The Smithsonian Book of North American Mammals. xxv + 750
  • Yablokov, A. 1964. Convergence or parallelism in the evolution of cetaceans. International Geology Review, 7: 1461-1468.
  • Yodzis P (2000) Diffuse effects in food webs. Ecology 81:261–266
  • Foundation, 2005. "World’s First Freshwater Porpoise Is Born In Captivity!" (On-line). Accessed November 28, 2005 at


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